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United Kingdom

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Limited Liability Partnership

Partnerships incorporated under the Limited Liability Partnership Act are hybrid entities that provide to its members the flexibility of a partnership arrangement and limit liability to the capital contributed by each member.

An LLP requires minimal corporate formation requirements and a fast registration procedure. There are no company structure requirements for the management of an LLP, nor are there provisions for company meetings, directors, secretary, or capital.

UK LLPs are fiscal transparent entities, all profit received by the LLP is considered to be transferred to its members and taxed at the personal level. Members pay personal income taxes on LLP profits proportionally to their share of participation in the LLP company, whether distributed or not.

An LLP must be set up by a minimum of two members, and although they are tax neutral entities, there are certain compliance requirements, including submitting annually financial statements to the UK Companies House and Partnership Tax return to the HMRC (Her Majesty Revenue & Customs).

All in all, a UK LLP is a flexible structure that benefits from being incorporated in a reputable jurisdiction and international financial and trade center. UK LLPs are vehicles commonly used to provide international professional services, conduct international trading, e-commerce, Amazon FBA and as a payment processing subsidiary.


Corporate Income Tax – An UK LLP is a tax transparent entity, which means that any profits are passed through to the members to be reported as personal income (in case of a member that is a natural person), or corporate income (in case of a member that is a company).

If the LLP's partners are tax resident in the UK, they pay personal income taxes (if the member is a natural person) or corporate income taxes (if the member is a company) on income generated by the LLP.

If the LLP members are nonresidents, foreign-source income (that is income attributed to foreign activities or to assets situated or issued outside of the UK) generated by a UK LLP may not be subject to taxation in the UK.

Personal income tax – An individual is tax resident in the UK if he or she spends at least 183 days in a year within the country or his or her only home is in the UK for at least 91 days in a year or work full-time in the UK or fulfills one of the previous conditions during the three preceding years.

If the individual is resident but not domiciled (permanent home) in the UK, his or her investment income and capital gains will be only taxed if are remitted to the UK.

Personal income tax rates are progressive up to 45% on income exceeding GBP 150,000. Dividends are also taxed at progressive rates (7.5%, 32.5%, and 38.1%) with an allowance of GBP 5,000.

Interest income is taxable as ordinary income, but a 0% may apply to the first GBP 5,000. Rental income is taxed depending on the location of the property.

Capital gains are taxed separately. The first GBP 11,000 may be tax-exempt. Gains exceeding this amount up to 32,000 may be taxed at 10% and 20% on the excess.

Other taxes – Local authorities levy real property tax on business premises. There is a stamp duty of 0.5% on the transfer of UK shares payable by the transferee. Stamp duty land tax applies on transfers of real property, rates are between 0% and 15%. There is an Annual tax on enveloped dwellings (ATED) levied to companies who own residential properties valued at more than GBP 500,000.

There is also an inheritance tax of up to 40%. The total tax-free allowance for a surviving spouse/partner is GBP 1,000,000. The UK does not levy wealth taxes.

V.A.T. standard rate is 20%, reduced rates of 5% and 0% may apply to certain items.

  • Tax transparent entity
  • Offshore Income Tax Exemption
  • Offshore capital gains tax exemption
  • Offshore dividends tax exemption
  • CFC Rules
  • Thin Capitalisation Rules
  • Patent Box
  • Tax Incentives & Credits
  • Property Tax
  • Wealth tax
  • Estate inheritance tax
  • Transfer tax
  • Capital duties
  • - Offshore Income Tax Rate
  • - Corporate Tax Rate
  • 19% Capital Gains Tax Rate
  • 0% Dividends Received
  • 0% Dividends Withholding Tax Rate
  • 20% Interests Withholding Tax Rate
  • 20% Royalties Withholding Tax Rate
  • 1 Losses carryback (years)
  • Indefinitely Losses carryforward (years)
  • FIFO Inventory methods permitted
  • 110 Tax time (hours)
  • 8 Tax payments per year
  • 12.00% Social Security Employee
  • 13.80% Social Security Employer
  • 45% Personal Income Tax Rate
  • 20% VAT Rate
  • 142 Tax Treaties

Country details

United Kingdom
English (United Kingdom), cy-GB, Gaelic (Scotland)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK), is a state located in the northwest of Continental Europe. Its territory is formed geographically by the island of Great Britain, the northeast of the island of Ireland and small adjacent islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the country with a land border, which separates it from the Republic of Ireland.

Great Britain delimits to the north and the west by the Atlantic Ocean, to the east by the North Sea, to the south by the English Channel and to the west by the Irish Sea.

The UK is a unitary state comprised of four constituent nations, Scotland, Wales, England, and Northern Ireland, and several overseas territories. Populated by more than 65 million people.

The capital, London, on the River Thames, is home of British Parliament, Big Ben, and the 11th-century Tower. Its official legal tender currency is the Pound Sterling (GBP), being the fourth most traded currency in the international exchange market behind the US$, the euro and the Japanese yen.

In 2016, a majority of 51.9 percent of voters in the United Kingdom chose to exit the European Union. The UK officially departed from the EU in 2020. The EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement took effect on May 1, 2021.

The United Kingdom operates as a parliamentary monarchy with King Charles III serving as its head of state, succeeding Queen Elizabeth II, who held the title of the longest-reigning and longest-living British monarch until her passing on September 8, 2022. King Charles also fulfills the role of the Head of State for the other fourteen nations within the Commonwealth of Nations, establishing a personal union between the United Kingdom and these countries.

It has a parliamentary government, based on the Westminster system, which has been emulated around the world, one of the legacies of the British Empire. The Parliament of the United Kingdom, which meets in the Palace of Westminster has two chambers: the House of Commons (elected by the people) and the House of Lords. Any law passed by parliament requires real consent to become law. The fact that the decentralized parliament in Scotland and the assemblies in Northern Ireland and Wales are not sovereign bodies and can be abolished by the British Parliament makes the latter the most important legislative body in the country.

The United Kingdom is one of the world’s most developed countries. It is the sixth largest economy and the second largest in Europe after Germany, and ahead of France.

Its technologically developed industry is comprised mainly of machinery, transport equipment (vehicles, railways, and aeronautics) and chemicals. The UK is also the second European producer of oil and gas, ahead of Norway.

The services sector is the major GDP contributor, which includes the stock market, banking services, and insurance companies. The London Stock Exchange is the second largest financial market after New York.

Its agriculture is highly mechanized, its main productions are potatoes, beets, wheat, and barley. However, it only accounts for only 1% of GDP and only 2% of purchasing power parity. Livestock is significant, especially sheep and cattle, being a large European producer of milk and its derivatives.

Tax treaties

Country Type Date Signed
Myanmar DTC  1950-03-13
Pakistan DTC  1986-11-24
Guernsey DTC  1952-06-24
Algeria DTC  2015-02-18
Russian Federation DTC  1994-02-15
Mexico DTC  1994-06-02
Faroe Islands DTC  2007-06-20
Kiribati DTC  1950-05-10
Lesotho DTC  1997-12-17
Sierra Leone DTC  1947-12-19
Netherlands DTC  1980-11-07
Turks and Caicos Islands TIEA 2009-07-22
Libya DTC  2008-08-17
Japan DTC  2006-02-02
Indonesia DTC  1993-04-05
Egypt DTC  1977-05-25
Uruguay TIEA 2013-10-14
Spain DTC  2013-03-14
Montserrat DTC  1947-12-19
Zambia DTC  1973-03-22
Liechtenstein TIEA 2009-08-11
Switzerland DTC  1977-12-08
Liberia TIEA 2010-11-07
Argentina DTC  1996-01-03
Saudi Arabia DTC  2007-10-31
Côte d'Ivoire DTC  1985-06-20
Hungary DTC  2011-09-07
Finland DTC  1969-07-17
United States DTC  2001-07-24
Tuvalu DTC  1950-05-10
Belize TIEA 2010-03-25
Iceland DTC  2013-12-17
Estonia DTC  1994-05-12
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines TIEA 2010-01-18
Morocco DTC  1981-09-08
Bahamas, The TIEA 2009-10-29
Solomon Islands DTC  1950-05-10
Panama DTC  2013-07-29
Senegal DTC  2015-02-26
Luxembourg DTC  1967-05-24
Sweden DTC  1983-08-30
Isle of Man TIEA 2008-09-29
Thailand DTC  1981-02-18
Hong Kong, China DTC  2010-06-21
Trinidad and Tobago DTC  1982-12-31
Poland DTC  2006-07-20
Kazakhstan DTC  1994-03-21
Jordan DTC  2001-07-22
Azerbaijan DTC  1994-02-23
Zimbabwe DTC  1982-10-19
Antigua and Barbuda TIEA 2010-01-19
Bermuda TIEA 2007-12-05
Armenia DTC  2011-07-13
Cyprus DTC  1974-06-20
Botswana DTC  2005-09-09
Mongolia DTC  1996-04-23
Fiji DTC  1975-12-21
Belgium DTC  1987-06-01
Germany DTC  2010-05-30
Nigeria DTC  1987-06-09
Jersey TIEA 2009-03-10
Swaziland DTC  1968-11-26
Venezuela DTC  1996-03-11
Lithuania DTC  2001-03-19
Qatar DTC  2009-06-25
Norway DTC  2013-03-14
Georgia DTC  2004-07-13
Aruba TIEA 2010-11-05
Uzbekistan DTC  1993-10-15
Mauritius DTC  1981-02-11
Malawi DTC  1955-11-25
Viet nam DTC  1994-04-09
Canada DTC  1978-09-08
Denmark DTC  1980-11-11
Ghana DTC  1993-01-20
New Zealand DTC  1983-08-04
Kuwait DTC  1999-07-21
Gibraltar TIEA 2009-08-27
Ethiopia DTC  2011-06-09
Israel DTC  1970-04-20
Grenada DTC  1949-03-04
Ukraine DTC  1993-02-10
Turkmenistan DTC  1985-07-31
Tajikistan DTC  1985-07-31
South Africa DTC  2002-07-04
Belarus DTC  1985-07-31
Anguilla TIEA 2009-07-20
Marshall Islands TIEA 2012-03-20
Latvia DTC  1996-05-08
Saint Lucia TIEA 2010-01-18
China DTC  1984-07-26
Australia DTC  2003-08-21
Malta DTC  1994-05-12
Sint Maarten TIEA 2010-09-10
Italy DTC  1988-10-21
Croatia DTC  1981-11-06
Kenya DTC  1973-07-31
San Marino TIEA 2010-02-16
Curaçao TIEA 2010-09-10
Romania DTC  1975-09-18
Moldova, Republic of DTC  2007-11-08
Brazil TIEA 2012-09-28
Bolivia DTC  1994-11-03
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia DTC  2006-11-08
Chile DTC  2003-07-12
Dominica TIEA 2010-03-31
Namibia DTC  1962-05-28
Papua New Guinea DTC  1991-09-17
Philippines DTC  1976-06-10
Cayman Islands DTC  2009-06-15
Oman DTC  1998-02-23
Greece DTC  1953-06-25
Korea, Republic of DTC  1996-10-25
Slovakia DTC  1990-11-05
Austria DTC  1969-04-30
Serbia DTC  1981-11-06
France DTC  2008-06-19
Singapore DTC  1997-02-12
Ireland DTC  1976-06-02
Saint Kitts and Nevis TIEA 2010-01-18
Portugal DTC  1968-03-27
Montenegro DTC  1981-11-06
Bahrain DTC  2010-03-10
Bosnia and Herzegovina DTC  1981-11-06
Turkey DTC  1986-02-19
Bangladesh DTC  1979-08-08
Sri Lanka DTC  1979-06-21
Albania DTC  2013-03-26
Barbados DTC  2012-04-26
India DTC  1993-01-25
Tunisia DTC  1982-12-15
Gambia, The DTC  1980-05-20
Jamaica DTC  1973-03-16
Brunei Darussalam DTC  1950-12-08
Czech Republic DTC  1990-11-05
Sudan DTC  1975-03-08
Uganda DTC  1992-12-23
Malaysia DTC  1996-12-10
Bulgaria DTC  1987-09-16
Macao, China TIEA 2014-09-03
Slovenia DTC  2007-11-13
Guyana DTC  1992-08-31

Tax treaties Map



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