Denmark

Denmark - Civil Law (Scandinavian/German)
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Denmark taxes

If you are wanting to do business in Denmark, this article will educate you on the tax laws for a LLC (ApS) which is the most common legal entity in Denmark.

Denmark imposes corporate level taxation accrured abroad separately then it it was earned inside the country. Theusual percentage for income earned abroad, from our research, and this is not personal tax advice, is 0%. The country does not have known exemptions to remit income earned abroad accrured abroad. Taxes are very reasonable in Denmark because the rate which LLC (ApS) will pay tax is 22%. This ranks Denmark as 86th overall in terms of corporate tax rate worldwide. . .

The VAT rate in Denmark is 25.00%, that ranks Denmark as 86th when compared to VAT taxation rate internationally. In terms of other taxation, an employer will contribute 20.00% to the equivalent of a social security fund and an employee will contribute 10.00%. The overall complexity of the tax system is medium. This is measured by average time to comply with a country's labor tax requirements is as it is 65hours. Contributing to this is the number of yearly labor tax payments, which is 1 in DK.

Thin capitalization mandates are in effect. This refers to any type of requirements on companies' debt-to-asset ratios. A dividend is a distribution of a portion of a company's earnings, passed by by the board, to a class of its shareholders. Dividends can be either cash payments, shares of stock, or other property. The capital gains rate in DKis 24%. A capital gains tax is levied on the profits that a corporation or natural person realizes when he or she sells sells a capital asset for a price that is higher than the purchase price.

The interest witholding rate is estimated at 0Which means that the tax authorities expects companies to automatically withhold 0 of payments offshore for for interest payments. The dividends witholding rate is 0This should be interpreted usually that the taxman expects legal entities to automatically withhold 0 of payments abroad on dividend payments. The royalties witholding rate 0 This means that the taxman expects LLC (ApS)'s to withold 0 of payments abroad on royalty payments.
There is no known tax on wealth in Denmark. There are inheritance taxes in DK placed on an estate. There exist commonly used research and development tax relief in this country.

The above is not tax or legal advice for your individual circumstances. Incorporations.io can to refer you to a tax advisorin Denmark who can get you an answer. Click the free consultation button above.

It takes approximately 25 hours to file and prepare documents for a Denmark Civil Law (Scandinavian/German).
The corporate tax is approximately 22% which is 86 in the world.

Owners of a company in Denmark are not allowed to carry back a loss and may be allowed to carry forward a loss for 100 years.

The vat rate in Denmark is 25% which ranks 170 in the world.

Patent box
RND credit
Wealth tax
Estate tax
Transfer taxes
Asset taxes
Capital duties
122Tax treaties
22%Offshore Tax
22%Corp rate
-Loss carryback years
25Corporate time
25%VAT rate
2350%Capital gains
2017AEOI planned

Read this to learn about incorporating a company in
Denmark

We can help you form a company in Denmark. Click the button above for a no-obligation quote. We will provide you with all the necessary documents to open a bank account as well as a registered office in Denmark, which is required by law.

We can help you with your incorporations needs for an initial payment of just $1000.

Easy Step by Step Process:
The standard process typically takes between two (2) to three (3) weeks depending on when we receive all the required information from you. Once we receive your information, we will email you a complete set of documents for your review within 3 working days upon confirmation of payment. After executing the documents, you will need to mail them to us and we will formally submit your application for filing with the Registry. The Registry will then take about 3-8 working days to process the incorporation and produce certificates necessary for opening your bank account.

Applying for Your Bank Accounts:
Incorporations.IO maintains close working relationship within our extensive network of partner banks to help you apply for and receive banking services that are most appropriate to your specific situation. From the time of verification of incorporation it can take (1) one week to (2) two weeks to apply for and receive a bank account. We work primarily with banks that allow for remotely opened accounts to ensure you are ready to do business as soon as possible.

Applying for Payment Processing:
We include introductions to payment processors or merchant accounts with all of our incorporation services. Whether you just need standard credit card processing or specialized services for high risk processing, we have partners that can assist you and are happy to help you with introductions that can empower your business.

Start Online or via Phone:
We can get started for you whenever you are ready via a US$1000 initial payment via credit card. I get notified whenever a payment is made here and would send out the welcome letter and initial forms we would need within 12 hours. If you prefer, we can also process via a phone or Skype call.

Denmark Tax Treaties

CountryTypeDate signed
Croatia
DTC 2007-09-14
Philippines
DTC 1995-06-30
Indonesia
DTC 1985-12-28
Romania
DTC 1976-12-13
Liechtenstein
TIEA2010-12-17
Vietnam
DTC 1995-05-31
Tunisia
DTC 1981-02-05
Taiwan
DTC 2005-08-30
Malta
DTC 1998-07-13
Panama
TIEA2012-11-16
Brunei
TIEA2012-06-27
Estonia
DTC 1993-05-04
Vanuatu
TIEA2010-10-13
Austria
DTC 2007-05-25
Guatemala
TIEA2012-05-15
Japan DTC 1968-02-03
Bermuda
TIEA2009-04-16
Bahamas
TIEA2010-03-10
Macao
TIEA2011-04-29
Trinidad and Tobago
DTC 1969-06-20
San Marino
TIEA2010-01-12
Switzerland
DTC 1973-11-23
Curacao
TIEA2009-09-10
Venezuela
DTC 1998-12-03
Liberia
TIEA2010-11-10
Sweden
TIEA1989-12-07
Faroe Islands
TIEA1989-12-07
Kyrgyzstan
DTC 1986-10-21
Sint Maarten
TIEA2009-09-10
Hong Kong
TIEA2014-08-22
Anguilla
TIEA2009-09-02
Armenia
DTC 1986-10-21
Grenada
TIEA2010-05-19
South Africa
DTC 1995-06-21
Greenland
TIEA1989-12-07
Georgia
DTC 2007-10-10
New Zealand
DTC 1980-10-10
Uganda
DTC 2000-10-14
Belgium
DTC 1969-10-16
Germany
DTC 1995-11-22
Uruguay
TIEA2011-12-14
Gibraltar
TIEA2009-09-02
Cayman Islands
TIEA2009-04-01
Antigua and Barbuda
TIEA2009-09-02
Ghana
DTC 2014-03-20
Hungary
DTC 2011-04-27
Russia
DTC 1996-02-08
Jamaica
TIEA2012-12-04
Seychelles
TIEA2011-03-30
Monaco
TIEA2010-06-23
Montenegro
DTC 1981-03-19
Thailand
DTC 1998-02-23
Niue
TIEA2013-10-16
Jersey
TIEA2008-10-28
Portugal
DTC 2000-12-14
Qatar
TIEA2013-09-06
Tanzania
DTC 1976-05-06
Ukraine
DTC 1996-03-05
Slovenia
DTC 2001-05-02
Egypt
DTC 1989-02-09
Kuwait
DTC 2010-06-22
Montserrat
TIEA2010-11-22
Argentina
DTC 1995-12-12
Zambia
DTC 1973-09-13
Israel
DTC 2009-09-09
Poland
DTC 2001-12-06
Kazakhstan
DTC 1993-12-10
Belarus
DTC 1986-10-21
Cook Islands
TIEA2009-12-16
Kenya
DTC 1972-12-13
Lithuania
DTC 1993-10-13
Mauritius
TIEA2011-12-01
Spain
TIEA2009-11-12
China
DTC 2012-06-16
Isle of Man
TIEA2007-10-30
Canada
DTC 1997-09-17
Bahrain
TIEA2011-10-14
Aruba
TIEA2009-09-10
South Korea
DTC 2007-11-11
United Kingdom
DTC 1980-11-11
Costa Rica
TIEA2011-06-29
Bangladesh
DTC 1996-07-16
Samoa
TIEA2009-12-16
Netherlands
DTC 1996-07-01
Italy
DTC 1999-05-05
Guernsey
TIEA2008-10-28
Turks and Caicos Islands
TIEA2009-09-07
Singapore
DTC 2000-07-03
Chile
DTC 2002-09-20
Pakistan
DTC 1987-10-22
Brazil
DTC 1974-08-27
India
DTC 1989-03-08
Saint Kitts and Nevis
TIEA2009-09-02
Saint Lucia
TIEA2009-10-12
Andorra
TIEA2010-02-24
Greece
DTC 1989-05-18
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
TIEA2009-09-01
Luxembourg
DTC 1980-11-17
Belize
TIEA2010-09-15
Malaysia
DTC 1970-12-04
Cyprus
DTC 2010-10-11
Marshall Islands
TIEA2010-09-28
Botswana
TIEA2013-02-20
Serbia
DTC 2009-05-15
Finland
TIEA1989-12-07
Morocco
DTC 1984-05-08
Azerbaijan
TIEA1988-01-25
Mexico
DTC 1997-06-11
Sri Lanka
DTC 1981-12-22
Bulgaria
DTC 1988-12-02
Norway
TIEA1989-12-07
Barbados
TIEA2011-11-03
Turkey
DTC 1991-05-30
Dominica
TIEA2010-05-19
Slovakia
DTC 1982-05-05
Australia
DTC 1981-04-01
Latvia
DTC 1993-12-10
Iceland
TIEA1989-12-07
Ireland
DTC 1993-03-26
Macedonia
DTC 2000-03-20
Czech Republic
DTC 2011-08-25
United States
DTC 1999-08-19

Country Info

National Flag of
Kongeriget Danmark (dan)
Currency
DKK
Area Code
+45
Capital
Copenhagen
Region
Northern Europe
Native Languages
Danish

Companies Act of Denmark

Denmark

Danish Act on Public and Private Limited Companies (the Danish Companies Act)

Part 1

Scope of the Act, etc.

Scope

1 (1) This Act applies to all public and private limited companies (limited liability companies).

(2) The holders of shares in public and private limited companies (the shareholders) are not personally liable for the obligations of the limited liability company, but are liable only to the extent of their contributions. The shareholders have a right to a share of the profits of the limited liability company in proportion to their ownership interest, unless otherwise provided by the company's articles of association.

(3) A private limited company may not offer its shares to the public.

Name of the limited liability company

2 (1) Only public and private limited companies have the right and duty to use in their names the designations "aktieselskab" (in English, public limited company) and "anpartsselskab" (in English, private limited company) respectively, or the abbreviations "A/S" and "ApS" respectively.

(2) The name of a limited liability company must be clearly distinguishable from the names of other businesses registered with the Danish Commerce and Companies Agency (Erhvervs- og Selskabsstyrelsen). The name may not include any family name, business name, distinctive name of real property, trademark, distinctive mark or similar feature not belonging to the limited liability company, or anything likely to cause confusion with such name or mark.

(3) The name of a limited liability company must not be capable of being misleading. Where the name of a limited liability company indicates a specific activity, the company may not continue using that name if the company significantly changes its principal activity.

(4) Limited liability companies must specify their name, registered office and Central Business Register (CVR) number on letters and other business papers, including electronic messages, and on their website.

3 (1) Section 2 also applies to any secondary names of limited liability companies.

(2) If a limited liability company registers more than five secondary names, an amount of DKK 1,000 will be payable for each secondary name. However, this requirement does not apply to secondary names that pre-date any reorganisation, merger or division.

Share capital

4 (1) Limited liability companies within the meaning of this Act must have a share capital to be denominated in Danish kroner or euro (but see subsection (3)).

(2) Public limited companies must have a minimum share capital corresponding to DKK 500,000, and private limited companies must have a minimum share capital corresponding to DKK 80,000.

(3) The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe detailed rules governing the right to denominate the share capital in a currency other than Danish kroner or euro.

Definitions

5 In this Act, the following terms have the following meanings:

1. "Public limited company":

A limited liability company, including a limited partnership company, in which the capital paid in by the shareholders is divided into shares. The shares may be offered to the public. Shareholders are liable only to the extent of their contributions to the company.

2. "Private limited company":

A limited liability company in which the capital paid in by the shareholders is divided into shares. Private limited companies may not offer their shares to the public (see section 1(3)). Shareholders are liable only to the extent of their contributions to the company.

3. "Subsidiary":

A business controlled by a parent company (see sections 6 and 7).

4. "The central governing body":

(a) the board of directors of companies having a board of directors;

(b) the executive board of companies having only an executive board; and

(c) the executive board of companies having both an executive board and a supervisory board (see section 111).

5. "The supreme governing body":

(a) the board of directors of companies having a board of directors;

(b) the executive board of companies having only an executive board; and

(c) the supervisory board of companies having both an executive board and a supervisory board (see section 111).

6. "Shareholders’ agreement":

An agreement governing the ownership and management of the company entered into between the shareholders.

7. "Share certificates":

Evidence of ownership of a share (see sections 59 and 60).

8. "Register of shareholders":

A complete register of all shareholders that must be kept by the limited liability company (see section 50).

9. "Public register of shareholders":

The register kept by the Commerce and Companies Agency that records the shareholdings of certain shareholders (see section 58).

10. "Bonus shares":

Shares issued in connection with a bonus share issue (see section 165).

11. "Cross-border relocation of registered office":

A limited liability company’s relocation of its registered office from one EU or EEA Member State to another EU or EEA Member State.

12. "Cross-border merger or division":

A merger or division involving limited liability companies which are subject to the laws of at least two different EU or EEA Member States.

13. "Registered office":

The address in Denmark at which the company may be contacted.

14. "Share":

A share as specified in sections 45 to 49.

15. "Shareholder":

An owner of one or more shares.

16. "Share class":

A group of shares carrying the same rights or obligations.

17. "Limited liability company":

A private limited company or a public limited company, including a limited partnership company.

18. "Group":

A parent company and its subsidiaries (see section 7).

19. "Management":

All of the bodies specified in paragraphs 4 and 5 of this section. Any member of management may be a member of the company’s supervisory board, board of directors or executive board.

**20. "Parent company":

A limited liability company controlling one or more subsidiaries (see sections 6 and 7).

21. "Limited partnership company":

A limited partnership (see section 2(2) of the Danish Act on Certain Commercial Enterprises (lov om visse erhvervsdrivende selskaber)) in which the limited partners have contributed a certain amount of capital which is divided into shares (see Part 21 of this Act).

22. "Restoration":

Temporary reinstatement of a company after it has been deleted from the IT system of the Commerce and Companies Agency (see section 235).

23. "Public limited shipping company“:

A public limited company carrying on shipping activities (see section 112(2)).

24. "Date of registration":

The date on which a shareholder's right to attend and vote on his shares at a general meeting is determined.

25. "Capital represented":

Voting or non-voting shares represented at the general meeting and carrying the right of representation as provided by the articles of association.

26. "Right of representation":

A right that can be attached to non-voting shares, allowing the shareholder to attend general meetings and be counted in the assessment of capital represented at the general meeting. Voting shares always carry a right of representation (see section 46).

27. "Share capital":

The contribution amount representing the extent of shareholder liability under this Act (see section 4).

28. "State-owned public limited companies":

A public limited company with which the Danish Government has a connection similar to that of a parent company and a subsidiary (see sections 6 and 7).

Groups

6 A group consists of a parent company and one or more subsidiaries. No business may have more than one direct parent company. If more than one company satisfies one or more of the criteria in section 7, only the company that has actual control of the financial and operating decisions of the business is deemed to be the parent company.

7 (1) Control means the power to exercise decisive influence over a subsidiary’s financial and operating decisions.

(2) Control of a subsidiary exists where the parent company owns, directly or indirectly through a subsidiary, more than half of the voting rights in a business, unless, in exceptional circumstances, it can be clearly demonstrated that such ownership does not constitute control.

(3) Where a parent company holds half or less than half of the voting rights in a business, control exists if the parent company has

1. the power to exercise more than half of the voting rights by virtue of an agreement with other investors;

2. the power to control the financial and operating policies of a business under any articles of association or agreement;

3. the power to appoint or remove the majority of the members of the supreme governing body, and this body has control of the business; or

4. the power to exercise the actual majority of votes at general meetings or an equivalent body and thus the actual control of the business.

(4) The existence and effect of potential voting rights, including rights to subscribe for and purchase shares that are currently exercisable or convertible, must be taken into account when assessing whether a company has control.

(5) Any voting rights attaching to shares owned by the subsidiary itself or by its subsidiaries must be disregarded in the determination of the voting rights in a subsidiary.

Powers of the bankruptcy courts and the Maritime and Commercial Court

8 Any powers granted to the bankruptcy courts under this Act must be exercised by the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where the company’s registered office is situated. However, such powers must be exercised by the Maritime and Commercial Court in Copenhagen for areas that fall within the jurisdiction of the Copenhagen City Court, the Court of Frederiksberg, and the Courts of Glostrup and Lyngby (see section 4 of the Danish Bankruptcy Act (konkursloven)).

Part 2

Registration and time limits

Registration

9 (1) All information to be registered under this Act must be recorded in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system no later than two weeks after the date of the operative resolution, unless otherwise provided by or under this Act. Where the applicant does not register the information directly in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system (see section 12(2), paragraph 1), an application for registration must be received by the Agency no later than two weeks after the date of the operative resolution.

(2) The company’s central governing body is responsible for ensuring that the information is registered, or that an application for registration is filed with the Commerce and Companies Agency.

(3) Subsections (1) and (2) also apply to the publication of documents and other notices in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system. Where the applicant does not publish the document or notice in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system (see section 12(2), paragraph 2), the document or notice must be received by the Agency no later than two weeks after the date of the relevant event.

10 (1) All members of the executive board, board of directors and supervisory board of a limited liability company as well as the company’s auditor, if applicable, must be registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

(2) If an auditor (see section 144(1)) resigns or is removed before the end of his term, the registration of that information or the application for registration must be accompanied by an adequate account by the central governing body of the reason for such termination of office.

11 Any amendment to the articles of association of a limited liability company or changes to any other information registered with the Commerce and Companies Agency must be registered directly in the Agency's IT system or submitted to the Agency for registration (see section 9).

12 (1) Applications for registration, financial statements and other documents received by the Commerce and Companies Agency under this Act may be in hard copy or electronic form (but see subsection (2)). The documents have equal legal status, whatever their form. Where this Act requires a document to be signed, such requirement may be satisfied by a personal signature, an automatically reproduced signature, or a digital or similar electronic signature.

(2) The Commerce and Companies Agency prescribes rules on

1. the use of and registration in the Agency’s IT system, including which information the applicant can or must register;

2. the publication of documents and other notices, including which documents and notices the applicant can or must publish in the Agency’s IT system;

3. the electronic filing of documents with the Agency under this Act, including which documents the applicant can or must file electronically, the form of the documents filed, the requirements of the electronic systems used, and the use of electronic signatures;

4. which information must be made available to the public as soon as possible;

5. whether information, etc. must be made available to the public;

6. fees for registration, printouts and other services, fees for announcements, fees for use of the Agency’s IT system, and fees for reminders, etc. in connection with late payment; and

7. the payment of an annual fee for the administration of the provisions of this Act and for services for which no particular price has been fixed.

13 (1) The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe rules stipulating the language to be used in the documentation submitted in connection with registrations or applications for registration by limited liability companies.

(2) The Agency prescribes rules stipulating that voluntary registration and publication of company information may also be made in any other official language of the European Union in addition to the statutory publication in one of the languages permitted under subsection (1).

(3) If there is any inconsistency between the documents and information that are subject to compulsory registration and publication under subsection (1) and any translations of such documents and information that have been voluntarily published under subsection (2), the company cannot rely on the translation as against third parties. However, third parties may rely on the text that has been voluntarily published as against the company, unless it is established that the third party had knowledge of the registrable version published in the IT system of the Commerce and Companies Agency.

Section 9(1) does not apply to documents published voluntarily.

14 (1) The Commerce and Companies Agency keeps a register of companies registered under this Act. All registrations and publications under this Act must be made in the Agency’s IT system.

(2) All information published in the IT system is deemed to have been communicated to third parties. However, the first sentence does not apply to transactions made on or before the 16th day after the date of publication if it is established that the third party could not have known about the published information.

(3) Information that is required to be registered and published cannot be enforced against third parties until it has been published in the IT system, unless it is established that the third party knew about the information. Third parties are not prevented from relying on information that has not yet been published.

15 (1) Information cannot be registered if it does not comply with the provisions in or made under this Act, or the company’s articles of association. The subject-matter of any resolution cannot be registered if the resolution has not been passed in accordance with the provisions in or made under this Act, or the company’s articles of association.

(2) Any applicant registering information directly or filing an application for registration in the IT system of the Commerce and Companies Agency warrants that the registration or application is lawful, including that the applicant is duly authorised, and that the documentation required for the registration or application is valid.

(3) Subsections (1) and (2) also apply to documents, etc. published in the IT system of the Commerce and Companies Agency or filed with the Agency for publication, etc. under this Act.

16 (1) If the Commerce and Companies Agency believes that there is an error or defect in any information that has been filed for registration, and the error or defect can be rectified by a resolution of the general meeting or the central governing body of the limited liability company, the Agency may set a deadline for remedying the matter. If the defect is not remedied within the time stipulated, registration cannot be made.

(2) If registration is refused under subsection (1), the applicant must be notified in writing to such effect, including the reason for non-registration.

(3) If the Commerce and Companies Agency learns that the legality of any registration, whether pending or completed, is questionable, the Agency may decide to discontinue registrations under section 9(1) until the matter has been clarified. The applicant must be notified in writing that registration cannot take place, including the reason for non registration.

The Agency may also publish a statement in its IT system explaining the reason for the decision.

(4) For matters falling within subsection (3), the Commerce and Companies Agency may also register any resignations of management.

17 (1) The Commerce and Companies Agency may request any information necessary to determine whether a limited liability company is in compliance with this Act, any rules made pursuant to this Act, and the company's articles of association.

(2) For the purposes of direct registration or an application for registration under the rules in this Part of the Act, the Commerce and Companies Agency may request evidence of legal registration or application for registration for up to three years after the date of registration. In special cases, the Agency may also demand that the company submit a declaration by an auditor that the financial transactions relating to the registration or the application for registration were legal. If the requirements in the first and second sentence are not complied with, the Agency will set a time limit for remedying such non-compliance. If remedial action is not taken within the time stipulated, the Agency may, if necessary, take steps to have the limited liability company dissolved under the rules in section 226.

18 (1) Particulars of the names and addresses of a company’s promoters and the names, positions and addresses of the members of management must be available at any time in the IT system of the Commerce and Companies Agency, whether the company is active or has been dissolved. The Agency can make rules stipulating that certain information is not to be disclosed.

(2) The personal information in subsection (1) will stop being updated once ten years have passed since the person in question ceased to be registered in respect of a business registered in the Agency's IT system.

19 Letters, printouts and any other documents issued by the Commerce and Companies Agency can be in either hard copy or electronic form. The documents have equal legal status, whatever their form. The documents may be signed or unsigned and may include an automatically reproduced signature, or a digital or similar signature at the Agency's discretion. However, the authenticity of electronic documents must be confirmed by a digital or similar electronic signature.

20 (1) If anyone asserts, except as provided in section 109, that the registration of a resolution passed by the general meeting or the management of a company is detrimental to them, the question of deregistration is to be determined by the courts.

(2) Such legal proceedings must be commenced against the company within six months from the date of publication of the registration in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system. The court will send a transcript of the judgment to the Agency for publication of the outcome of the case in the Agency’s IT system.

Time limits

21 (1) Where it is provided in this Act or in any rules or regulations made pursuant to this Act that an action can or must be taken within a certain number of days, weeks, months or years before a specific event, the time allowed for taking such action is calculated from the day before the event.

(2) If the time limit for taking action expires on a weekend, public holiday, 5 June (Constitution Day), 24 December or 31 December, action must be taken on or before the last preceding working day.

22 Where it is provided in this Act or in any rules or regulations made pursuant to this Act that an action or a decision cannot be taken or made until a certain number of days, weeks, months or years after a specific event has occurred, the time allowed for taking such action or making such decision is calculated from the day after the event. Such action or decision can only be taken or made from the day after expiry of the time limit.

23 (1) Where it is provided in this Act or in any rules or regulations made pursuant to this Act that an action must be taken within a certain number of days, weeks, months or years after a specific event has occurred, the time allowed for taking such action is calculated from the day after the event (see subsections (2) to (4)).

(2) If the time limit in subsection (1) is stated in weeks, the time limit for taking action expires on the same day of the week that the event took place.

(3) If the time limit in subsection (1) is stated in months, the time limit for taking action expires on the same day of the month that the event took place. If the event took place on the last day of a month, or if the time limit expires on a date that does not exist in that month, the time limit always expires on the last day of the month, irrespective of the number of days in that month.

(4) If the time limit in subsection (1) is stated in years, the time limit for taking action expires on the anniversary of the date of the event.

(5) If the time limit expires on a weekend, public holiday, 5 June (Constitution Day), 24 December or 31 December, action must be taken on or before the next working day.

Part 3

Formation Promoters

24 (1) A limited liability company can be established by one or more promoters.

(2) A promoter must not have had any application for suspension of payments filed against them, and must not be the subject of any pending bankruptcy proceedings.

(3) If the promoter is a natural person, that person must have full legal capacity and may not be under guardianship under section 5 of the Danish Guardianship Act (værgemålsloven), nor may any surrogate decision-maker have been appointed for the promoter under section 7 of the Guardianship Act.

(4) If the promoter is a legal person, that person must be authorised to acquire rights, enter into commitments and be a party to legal proceedings.

Memorandum of association

25 The promoters must sign a memorandum of association, which includes the articles of association of the limited liability company.

26 The memorandum of association must specify

1. the names, addresses and Central Business Register (CVR) numbers, if applicable, of the promoters of the limited liability company;

2. the subscription price of the shares;

3. the time limits for subscribing and paying for the shares;

4. from which date formation takes legal effect (see section 40(3) to (5));

5. from which date formation takes effect for accounting purposes (see section 40(6)); and

6. whether the limited liability company must pay the initial expenses and, if so, the estimated amount of such expenses.

27 (1) The memorandum of association must also include provisions on the following matters if so resolved:

1. special rights or benefits accruing to the promoters or others;

2. any agreement entered into with the promoters or others that may impose a major financial obligation on the limited liability company;

3. that shares may be subscribed against contribution of assets other than cash (see section 35);

4. that the annual report of the limited liability company is not to be audited if the company qualifies for an audit exemption under the Danish Financial Statements Act (årsregnskabsloven) or any other statute; and

5. the amount of the subscribed share capital that is paid up at the date of formation.

(2) In the memorandum of association the promoters must give an account of the circumstances affecting the assessment of the provisions included pursuant to subsection (1). The account must include the names and addresses of the persons who are subject to the provisions.

(3) Documents that are referred to in the memorandum of association without their main contents being reproduced must be annexed to the memorandum of association.

(4) Agreements on matters that are dealt with but not approved in the memorandum of association are not enforceable against the limited liability company.

Articles of association

28 The articles of association of a limited liability company must include information on:

1. the company’s name and any secondary name(s);

2. the company’s object(s);

3. the amount of the share capital and the number or nominal value of the shares;

4. the rights attaching to the shares;

5. the company’s governing bodies;

6. notice of general meetings; and

7. the company’s financial year.

29 The articles of association of a limited liability company must also specify the resolutions to be included in the articles of association as required by this Act and the latest date for termination of the company if its existence is time limited.

Subscriptions for share capital

30 Any subscription for shares must be specified in the memorandum of association with appendices (if any).

31 No share subscriptions may be made subject to reservations or at a discount.

32 (1) The promoters decide whether to accept subscriptions for shares (but see section 31).

(2) Where shares are oversubscribed, the promoters must decide how many shares to allot to each individual subscriber before registration or application for registration (see sections 9 and 40). No promoter may be allotted shares of a smaller amount than that subscribed for by that promoter in the memorandum of association.

(3) The promoters must notify any subscriber for shares in a limited liability company as soon as possible if

1. the subscription is not accepted;

2. the promoters consider the subscription to be invalid; or

3. the amount subscribed for has been reduced because of over subscription.

(4) Any proposal to form a limited liability company with a larger or smaller share capital than that specified in the articles of association is subject to the consent of all promoters and subscribers for capital (see section 39(2)).

(5) Where the share capital or any prescribed minimum capital has not been fully subscribed for and accepted by the promoters, the formation of the limited liability company and the subscribers’ obligations lapse. Any amount paid on the shares must be refunded. However, all initial expenses may be deducted from the refunded amount where so stipulated in connection with the subscription.

Payment of share capital

33 (1) An amount equal to 25% of the share capital, but not less than DKK 80,000, must be paid up at all times.

Where a premium is fixed, it must be fully paid up, notwithstanding that part of the share capital is not paid up. Payment must be made on each individual share. However, where all or part of the share capital is paid up by way of non cash contributions (see section 35), the entire share capital must be paid up.

(2) The limited liability company’s central governing body may call up share capital that has not been paid up. Two weeks or more must be allowed for payment. The articles of association may provide a longer period for payment, but this must not exceed four weeks.

(3) The limited liability company’s claims for payment on shares cannot be transferred or used as security.

(4) If the amount of the share capital is stated on the limited liability company’s letters and other business papers, including electronic messages, and on the company’s website, both the subscribed and the paid-up share capital amounts must be stated.

34 (1) The rights of a shareholder under this Act subsist regardless of whether their shares are fully paid up (but see subsection (3)).

(2) A shareholder must make payment on a share upon request from the central governing body (see section 33(2)). However, any shareholder is entitled to pay the amount outstanding on a share at any time, notwithstanding that the central governing body has not called up such capital. In that case, the shareholder must pay the full amount outstanding on the share, unless otherwise provided by the articles of association.

(3) If a shareholder has failed to duly comply with the central governing body’s request for payment of the amount outstanding on a share, the shareholder may not exercise the voting rights attaching to any part of his shareholding in the limited liability company at general meetings and his shares will be considered unrepresented at general meetings until the amount has been paid to and registered by the company. However, this does not apply to the right to dividends and other payments, nor to the right to subscribe for new shares in connection with a capital increase. The central governing body may set off the limited liability company’s claim for payment of the share capital against distributions from the company which the shareholder is entitled to receive as a shareholder.

(4) Shareholders cannot set off a claim against the limited liability company against their obligation to pay outstanding amounts without the consent of the company’s central governing body. Such consent may not be given if the set-off may be detrimental to the limited liability company or its creditors.

(5) Shareholders cannot contribute assets other than cash to the limited liability company in discharge of their obligations to pay outstanding amounts without the consent of the company’s central governing body. Such consent may not be given if the contribution may be detrimental to the limited liability company or its creditors. A valuation report must also be prepared under the provisions of sections 36 and 37, unless the contribution is governed by section 38.

(6) Where a shareholder transfers a share that has not been fully paid up, he will be jointly and severally liable with the transferee and any subsequent transferees for payment of the outstanding amount on the share.

Special provisions on non-cash contributions

35 (1) Any contribution of assets other than cash - a non-cash contribution - must have a value that can be expressed as a money equivalent and may not consist of an obligation to do work or perform services.

(2) Claims against promoters or shareholders may not be contributed or acquired, regardless of whether the claims are secured by a charge.

36 (1) If the limited liability company is to acquire assets other than cash, the memorandum of association must be accompanied by a valuation report. The report must include

1. a description of each contribution;

2. information on the valuation method applied;

3. the amount of the consideration to be paid for the acquisition; and

4. a declaration that the financial value of the assets as assessed in the report is no less than the agreed consideration, including the nominal value of the shares to be issued, if applicable, and any premium on them.

(2) The valuation may not be made more than four weeks before the date of signing of the memorandum of association.

If the four-week period is exceeded, a new valuation must be made.

(3) Where, in connection with its formation, the limited liability company acquires an existing business or a controlling interest in another limited liability company, the valuation report must also include an opening balance sheet for the limited liability company. The opening balance sheet must be prepared in accordance with the Danish Financial Statements Act. The opening balance sheet must be without any qualifications. If the limited liability company is subject to audit obligations under the Financial Statements Act or any other statute, the opening balance sheet must contain an unqualified audit report.

37 (1) The valuation report must be prepared by one or more impartial valuation experts. The promoters can appoint as valuation experts approved auditors or persons appointed by the Danish Minister of Justice as expert nominees in connection with negotiations for compulsory compositions. In other cases, valuation experts may be appointed by the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where the limited liability company’s registered office is to be situated.

(2) Sections 133 and 149 of this Act and section 24 of the Danish Act on Registered and State-Authorised Public Accountants (revisorloven) also apply to valuation experts.

(3) The valuation experts must be allowed to make any investigation deemed necessary by them and may request any information and assistance from the promoters or the limited liability company that is required for the performance of their work.

38 (1) The requirement for the preparation of a valuation report under section 36(1) does not apply to contributions of:

1. Assets measured individually and presented in financial statements or consolidated financial statements for the previous financial year that have been prepared in accordance with the provisions of the Danish Financial Statements Act or international accounting standards (as specified in the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the application of international accounting standards) in accordance with accounting rules included in or made under financial services law, or in the financial statements of a foreign business prepared under the rules of the Fourth Council Directive of 25 July 1978 (78/660/EEC), as amended, or the Seventh Council Directive of 13 June 1983 (83/349/EEC), as amended, and containing an audit report.

2. Securities or money-market instruments recorded at the average price at which they have been traded on one or more regulated markets over the four weeks preceding the date of signing of the memorandum of association. However, a valuation report must be prepared in accordance with section 36(1) if the central governing body of the limited liability company assesses that the average price is affected by extraordinary circumstances or otherwise cannot be assumed to reflect the current value.

(2) The central governing body of the limited liability company is responsible for ensuring that contributions made under subsection (1) are not detrimental to the company, its shareholders or creditors, and must issue a declaration containing

1. a description of the asset and its value;

2. information on the valuation method applied;

*3.** a statement that the values stated at least correspond to the value of and, if applicable, the premium on the shares to be issued as consideration for the contribution; and

4. a statement that no new circumstances have arisen that affect the original valuation.

(3) The central governing body must publish its declaration under subsection (2) in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system on or before the date of registration or application for registration of the company’s formation.

39 (1) Where the management and auditor, if applicable, of the limited liability company have not been elected in connection with the company’s formation, the promoters must hold a general meeting to elect the management and auditor no later than two weeks after signing the memorandum of association. The company’s formation and the elected management and auditor, if applicable, must be registered directly or an application for registration must be filed as provided in section 9.

Registration

40 (1) The limited liability company must be registered directly in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system or an application for registration must be submitted (see section 9) no later than two weeks after the date of signing of the memorandum of association. If no registration has been made or no application for registration has been received by the Commerce and Companies Agency before expiry of the two-week period, the company cannot be registered.

(2) The limited liability company may only be registered if at least 25% of the aggregate share capital, but not less than DKK 80,000 (see section 4(2)), has been paid up (see section 33(1), first sentence). Where a premium has been fixed, this must be paid up in full (see section 33(1), second sentence).

(3) The formation of the limited liability company will be effective from the date of signing of, or from any later date specified in, the memorandum of association (but see subsections (4) and (5)).

(4) If the share capital is paid up by way of cash contributions, formation may be effected no later than 12 months after the memorandum of association has been signed.

(5) If the limited liability company acquires assets other than cash in connection with its formation, the formation must be effected on or before the date of registration or application for registration of the company (see subsection (1)).

(6) If the limited liability company acquires an existing business or a controlling interest in another limited liability company in connection with its formation, the formation may take effect for accounting purposes from the first day of the current financial year of the business which is acquired or in which an interest is acquired.

41 (1) No limited liability company that has not been registered may acquire rights, undertake obligations or be a party to any legal action other than actions to recover subscribed share capital and other actions relating to the subscription for shares. The company must add the words "under stiftelse" (in English, in the process of formation) to its name.

(2) Where a limited liability company is formed and the date of formation falls after the date on which the memorandum of association is signed, no rights may be acquired and no obligations may be entered into on behalf of the company in the period until the company’s formation becomes legally effective.

(3) Anyone who has undertaken an obligation on behalf of the limited liability company after the date on which the memorandum of association is signed, but before the date of registration, or who has joint responsibility in this respect, will be jointly and severally liable for that obligation. Upon registration, the limited liability company acquires the rights and obligations stipulated in the memorandum of association or conferred on the company after the signing of the memorandum of association.

(4) Where a contract is made before the limited liability company has been registered and the contracting party knew that the company was not registered, the contracting party may terminate the contract if the company is not registered with the Commerce and Companies Agency on or before expiry of the time limit specified in section 40(1), or if registration is refused. However, this only applies in the absence of an agreement to the contrary. If the contracting party did not know that the limited liability company was not registered, the contracting party may terminate the contract as long as the company remains unregistered.

Subsequent acquisitions

42 (1) Where a public limited company acquires assets from a promoter, the central governing body of the company must issue a statement giving particulars of the circumstances of the acquisition if

1. the acquisition takes place in the period between the date of signing of the memorandum of association and 24 months after the date of registration of the limited liability company; and

2. the consideration corresponds to no less than one-tenth of the share capital.

(2) The central governing body of the public limited company is responsible for ensuring that no acquisition of shares is detrimental to the company, its shareholders or creditors.

43 (1) Where a public limited company acquires assets from a promoter and that acquisition falls within section 42(1), a valuation report must also be prepared as provided by sections 36 and 37, unless the acquisition is governed by section 38.

(2) However, if the asset acquired under subsection (1) is an existing business, the opening balance sheet to be prepared under section 36(3) must be prepared as a pre-acquisition balance sheet for the acquired business.

44 (1) The statement under section 42 and the valuation report under section 43 must be published by the central governing body in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution to make the contribution.

(2) Sections 42 and 43 do not apply to the usual business transactions of the public limited company.

Part 4

Shares, registers of shareholders, etc.

Shares

45 In limited liability companies, all shares carry equal rights. However, the articles of association of a company may provide that the company must have different share classes, in which case the articles must specify the different characteristics and size of each class.

46 (1) All shares carry voting rights. However, the articles of association of a limited liability company may provide that certain shares carry no voting rights, and that the voting power of certain shares differs from that of the other shares.

(2) Non-voting shares only carry a right of representation if so provided by the articles of association.

47 (1) Limited liability companies may issue par value shares or non-par value shares, or any combination of such shares.

(2) Non-par value shares have no nominal value. Each non-par value share represents an equal amount of the share capital.

(3) The amount of the share capital represented by par value shares is based on the proportion between the par value and the share capital, and the amount represented by non-par value shares is based on the number of shares issued.

48 (1) Shares are freely transferable and non-redeemable, unless otherwise provided by statute.

(2) Shares may be registered in the names of the holders. The articles of association may include restrictions on the transferability of registered shares, or rules on their redemption. Shares may also be issued to bearer.

49 (1) No purchaser of a registered share may exercise the rights conferred on that purchaser as a shareholder unless and until the purchaser has been registered in the register of shareholders or has given notice of his acquisition of the shares to the company and established good title to them. However, this does not apply to the right to receive dividends and other distributions, or to the right to subscribe for new shares issued in connection with a capital increase.

Register of shareholders

50 (1) As soon as possible after the formation of the company, the central governing body must set up a register of shareholders.

(2) The company may keep the register of shareholders by registering the information specified in sections 52 and 56(2) in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system (see section 58).

(3) The articles of association may provide that the register of shareholders must be kept by a person designated by the company to keep the register on its behalf. The articles of association must set out the name and address of the person charged with keeping the register of shareholders. If that person is a legal person, only the Central Business Register (CVR) number needs to be stated. The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe detailed rules permitting persons to keep registers of shareholders, including the requirements that must be met by such persons.

51 (1) The register of shareholders must be kept available for inspection by public authorities. The articles of association must specify the place where the register of shareholders is to be kept if it is not kept at the company’s registered office. The register of shareholders must be kept within the EU/EEA.

(2) For companies whose employees are entitled to elect representatives to the company’s supreme governing body under section 140, but that right has not been exercised, the register of shareholders must also be kept available for inspection by an employee representative. For groups whose employees have not elected members to the company’s supreme governing body under section 141, the register of shareholders of the parent company must be kept available for inspection by employee representatives from the other Danish group companies.

(3) Subsection (2) that applies to companies with no employee representatives on the board of directors also applies to European Companies (SEs) in which no employee representatives have been elected to the administrative or supervisory body in accordance with the rules governing employee participation in SEs.

(4) The articles of association may provide that the register of shareholders must also be kept available for inspection by the shareholders, including in electronic form (but see subsections (5) and (6)). A resolution to such effect must be passed by the general meeting with the majority of votes required to amend the articles.

(5) Where the register of shareholders as specified in section 50(2) is kept available for inspection in electronic form, the company may fulfil its obligations under subsections (1) to (4) by giving those entitled to inspect the register under subsections (1) to (4) access to the electronic register. The company may discharge its obligations by registering the information specified in section 52 in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system (the public register of shareholders) in accordance with section 58(2).

(6) In private limited companies, the register of shareholders must be kept available for inspection by all shareholders.

52 (1) Unless issued through a securities centre, shares must be entered in the register of shareholders in numerical order. For companies that have not issued share certificates or have issued registered shares, or whose shares have not been issued through a securities centre, the register of shareholders must contain information about all holders of shares and charges, the date of acquisition, disposal of or charge over the shares, the voting rights attaching to the shares, the names and addresses of the shareholders or, in the case of businesses, their name, Central Business Register (CVR) number and registered office. If the shareholder or charge holder is a foreign national or a foreign legal person, the notice to be given under section 53(1) must be accompanied by other documentation ensuring unambiguous identification of the shareholder.

53 (1) The shareholder or charge holder must notify the limited liability company of any change in share ownership or charge. The notice from the shareholder or charge holder must be received by the company no later than two weeks after the date of the change of ownership or charge. The notice must contain information about the new shareholder or charge holder as specified in section 52. Where shares are transferred, the name of the new holder need not be registered (but see section 54(3)).

(2) Any notice of a change of ownership or charge must be entered in the register of shareholders, including particulars of the new shareholder or charge holder, provided that the articles of association do not prevent the acquisition. The company or, respectively, the keeper of the register of shareholders can make registration subject to the new shareholder or charge holder establishing good title to the shares or charge. Entries in the register of shareholders must be dated.

(3) The company or, respectively, the keeper of the register of shareholders must provide evidence of registration in the register of shareholders upon request from a shareholder or charge holder.

54 (1) In public limited companies that have not issued share certificates or have not issued shares through a securities centre, the information specified in section 52 must be set out in the register of shareholders, but bearer shares need only be registered with a serial number. Unless issued through a securities centre, the shares must be entered in the register of shareholders in numerical order.

(2) Where a share certificate is issued for more than one share, the register of shareholders must also contain information about the serial number of the share certificate, the serial numbers of the shares covered by the certificate and their nominal value.

(3) Where a registered share is transferred, and the articles of association do not prevent the new owner’s acquisition of the share, the name of the new owner must be registered if the new owner so requests and establishes good title to the share. The company or, respectively, the keeper of the register of shareholders must endorse the registered share to the effect that registration has been made, or, if so provided by the articles of association, issue evidence of registration subject to the share certificate being deposited.

Notification of significant shareholdings

55 (1) Any holder of shares in a limited liability company must notify the company if

1. the voting rights attaching to the shares represent 5% or more of the voting rights of the share capital, or represent 5% or more of the share capital; or

2. any change occurs to a previously notified shareholding to the effect that the 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 90 or 100% thresholds and the thresholds of one-third or two-thirds of the voting rights or of the share capital are reached or no longer reached.

(2) Shareholdings under subsection (1) include

1. shares whose voting rights are held by a business controlled by the shareholder as specified in section 7; and

2. shares that the holder has provided as security, unless the charge holder controls the voting rights and declares an intention to exercise them.

(3) The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe detailed rules on the holding of shares and notification of shareholdings under subsections (1) and (2). The Agency may also prescribe rules deviating from subsection (1) for shares in public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market, including rules on a shorter notice period.

56 (1) Notification under section 55 must be provided to the company no later than two weeks after a change that affects one of the thresholds specified in section 55(1) with the result that a new threshold is reached, or a threshold that was previously satisfied is no longer reached. The company must enter the information in the register of shareholders.

(2) The notification must include information on the date of acquisition or disposal of the shares, the number and, if applicable, the class of shares, the shareholder’s full name and address or, in the case of a business, its name, Central Business Register (CVR) number and registered office. If the shareholder is a foreign national or a foreign legal person, the notification must be accompanied by other documentation ensuring clear identification of the shareholder. The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe detailed rules in this respect.

(3) The notification must also include information on the size and nominal value, respectively, of the shares and the voting rights attaching to them. The notification to the company may be given in connection with the notice to be given under section 53(1).

57 The Commerce and Companies Agency prescribes rules on the notification of shareholdings in state-owned public limited companies in accordance with section 55, including rules stipulating

1. the definition of a shareholding; and

2. that notification must be given to the company as soon as possible.

Public register of shareholders

58 (1) Upon receipt of a notification under section 55(1), the company must register the information in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system as soon as possible.

(2) The company must also provide notice as soon possible of any changes to the information notified under subsection (1) that affect the thresholds in section 55(1) and mean that any new thresholds are reached, or any that were previously satisfied are no longer reached.

(3) All information received under subsections (1) and (2) must be published in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system. The provisions of Part 2 governing registration apply with such changes as are necessary.

Share certificates

59 A share certificate may be issued for one or more shares. If a share certificate is issued for more than one share, the certificate must state its own serial number and the serial numbers and nominal value, if applicable, of the shares covered by the certificate.

60 (1) The central governing body can resolve to issue and cancel share certificates. Share certificates may only be issued if so provided by the articles of association (but see section 64(1)), or if the share certificates are negotiable instruments or issued to bearer, in which case share certificates must be issued for all shares, unless they are issued through a securities centre (see section 7(1)(vi) of the Danish Securities Trading Act (lov om værdipapirhandel m.v.)).

(2) However, if the shares are subject to restrictions on transferability or the shareholders are required to have their shares redeemed, no share certificates may be issued to bearer, and no transfer of share certificates to bearer will be binding on the public limited company.

(3) No share certificates may be delivered until the capital subscription has been registered with the Commerce and Companies Agency. Registered shares may only be delivered to shareholders registered in the company’s register of shareholders.

(4) Share certificates must state the name, registered office and registration number of the company, and the serial number, size or nominal value of the share. Share certificates must also state whether the certificate is to be registered in the name of the holder or whether it may be issued to bearer, and must indicate the date or month of issue. Share certificates must be signed by the central governing body. However, the signature may be mechanically reproduced.

(5) If the articles of association provide that shares of different classes can be issued, the share certificate must state the class of the share.

(6) Share certificates must also reference any provisions of the articles of association that stipulate that

1. the shares must be registered in the names of the holders in order to carry voting rights;

2. certain shares carry special rights;

3. shareholders are required to have their shares redeemed;

4. the shares are non-negotiable instruments;

5. the shares are subject to restrictions on transferability; and

6. the shares may be cancelled without a court order.

(7) Share certificates must contain a proviso that the particulars set out in subsection (6), paragraphs 3 to 5, may have been changed subsequent to the date of issue, altering the legal position of the shareholder. Where such changes are made, the central governing body must take all reasonable steps to have the share certificates endorsed to such effect or replaced by new share certificates.

Shares issued through a securities centre

61 (1) For shares issued through a securities centre, the limited liability company’s central governing body must ensure that the securities centre receives the following particulars as well as information on any subsequent changes to these as soon as possible:

1. The company’s name, registered office, postal address and registration number in the register of limited liability companies.

2. The company’s share capital, including the number and size of the shares, and, for registered shares, also the names and addresses of the shareholders. Companies with more than one class of shares must list the information by class.

3. Any particular rights or obligations attaching to specific shares.

4. Any requirement for the shares to be registered in order to carry voting rights.

(2) No shares may be issued through a securities centre until the company has been registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

(3) In connection with any capital increases, the central governing body must ensure that pre-emption rights and rights to bonus shares are registered, and specify the number of rights required for new shares. For new shares, the date from which they confer rights in the company must be specified. If the capital increase has not been registered in the register of limited liability companies, or if a share has not yet been fully paid up, the central governing body must register information to that effect with the securities centre.

(4) The central governing body must ensure that any resolution to reduce capital, and the amount of the reduction, is registered with the securities centre as soon as possible after the resolution is passed.

(5) The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe detailed rules on the information to be provided under subsections (1) to (4).

62 (1) If the shares in a public limited company are to be issued through a securities centre, the company must provide the securities centre with the information specified in section 61 as soon as possible.

(2) Any share certificates for shares in the public limited company must be delivered to an account-holding bank in the manner prescribed by the registration notice issued by the securities centre. The shareholder and the company must provide the information prescribed in the registration notice.

(3) The public limited company must pay all of the costs associated with issuing its shares, etc. through a securities centre. The public limited company must enter into an agreement with one or more account-holding banks stipulating that the shareholders may, at the company’s expense,

1. have their shares, etc. registered and held in safe keeping by such banks; and

2. receive notification of dividends, etc. and an annual statement of their account.

(4) The shareholders are entitled to appoint an account-holding bank of their choice to provide the services listed in paragraphs 1 and 2, provided that that bank agrees to provide these services at the same cost to the public limited company as would have been charged by the bank with which the company has an arrangement.

63 Where the company's shares are required to be registered with a securities centre, and three years after the call for registration has been made there are still some shares that have not been registered, the central governing body may, by notice in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system, request that the shareholders register their shares within an additional period of six months. Upon expiry of that six-month period, the central governing body may sell any unregistered shares, at the expense of the relevant shareholder(s), through a securities dealer as defined in section 4(3) of the Danish Securities Trading Act. The public limited company is entitled to deduct the expenses incurred in connection with the notice and sale of the shares from the proceeds of the sale. Any proceeds not claimed within three years of the sale will accrue to the public limited company.

Cancellation of share certificates

64 (1) Where a company's shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market (see section 7(1)(ii) of the Danish Securities Trading Act), the shareholders are not entitled to demand that share certificates be issued.

(2) Where a limited liability company has issued share certificates, the company may request the shareholders to return the certificates for cancellation. The company must provide at least three months’ notice in accordance with the rules provided by this Act and the company’s articles of association regarding notice of annual general meetings, and must provide notice in writing to all shareholders registered in the register of shareholders. The rights conferred on a shareholder may not be exercised until the share certificate has been returned to the limited liability company. However, this does not apply to the right to receive dividends and other distributions or the right to subscribe for new shares issued in connection with a capital increase.

(3) Subsection (1) does not apply to shares that are negotiable instruments or bearer shares.

Transfer of shares

65 (1) Any transfer of a share that has not been issued through a securities centre, or for which no share certificate has been issued in ownership or by way of security, will only be effective against the creditors of the transferor if the limited liability company or the keeper of the register of shareholders (see section 50(3)) has received notice of such transfer from the transferor or the transferee.

(2) Where a shareholder has transferred the same share to more than one transferee and the share is governed by subsection (1), any subsequent transferee takes priority over prior transferees once the limited liability company or the keeper of the register of shareholders (see section 50(3)) has received notice of the transfer to the subsequent transferee, provided that the subsequent transferee acted in good faith when the company or the keeper of the register of shareholders received the notice.

66 (1) Where a share certificate is transferred in ownership or by way of security, the provisions of section 14(1) and

(2) of the Danish Debt Instruments Act (lov om gældsbreve) apply, with such changes as are necessary. However, such provisions do not apply if a clear and unambiguous reservation has been made on the share certificate in accordance with the limited liability company’s articles of association, stipulating, for instance, that the certificate is a non-negotiable instrument. Any share certificate issued to bearer remains a bearer security unless the owner’s name is stated on the certificate, even if it is endorsed by the public limited company to the effect that the share is registered in the name of the holder.

(2) The provisions of sections 24 and 25 of the Debt Instruments Act apply to dividend coupons.

(3) Share certificates may be cancelled without a court order only when the articles of association of the limited liability company and the share certificate provide for such cancellation. Notice of cancellation must be provided in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system as follows:

1. at least four weeks’ notice for cancellation of share certificates that are non-negotiable instruments; and

2. at least six months' notice for cancellation of other share certificates.

(4) The provisions of subsection (3) apply, with such changes as are necessary, to coupons and renewal coupons (talons). Coupon sheets and the accompanying share certificates may be cancelled without a court order unless otherwise provided by the articles of association.

Part 5

Restrictions on negotiability and redemption

Pre-emption rights

67 (1) If the articles of association grant a pre-emption right to shareholders or others in the event of a transfer of shares, the articles of association must include detailed rules on such pre-emption rights, including the time allowed for exercising those rights. If these provisions lead to a price or terms that are obviously unfair, they may be set aside in whole or in part by a court order.

(2) For the purpose of the court proceedings (see subsection (1), second sentence), the parties may rely on the rules in subsection (3) and have an expert appointed to assess whether the price is obviously unfair and to fix an appropriate price.

(3) If the articles of association do not include any provisions about calculating the price payable on the exercise of a pre-emption right, the price must, in the absence of agreement, be fixed at the value of the shares as assessed by an expert appointed by the court with jurisdiction over the place where the limited liability company's registered office is situated. The expert's opinion may be brought before the court. Such proceedings must be commenced within three months of receipt of the expert opinion. All costs pertaining to the expert must be paid by the shareholder requesting the expert opinion, but may be imposed on the company if the opinion differs significantly from the price and is used in whole or in part as a basis for calculation.

(4) Where more than one share is transferred, the pre-emption right cannot be exercised for only part of the shares unless authorised by the articles of association.

Consent to sale

68 (1) If the articles of association make the transfer of shares subject to consent, a decision as to consent must be made as soon as possible after receipt of a request for consent. The person requesting such consent must be notified of the decision as soon as possible. If no notification has been given within four weeks of receipt of the request, consent will be deemed to have been given.

(2) If the articles of association make the transfer of shares subject to the consent of the limited liability company, the central governing body must make the decision, unless such decision is to be made by the general meeting. The reason for any refusal of consent must be stated in the notification (see subsection (1)).

Redemption

69 If the articles of association include provisions on redemption, such provisions must specify the terms of redemption and the persons entitled to demand redemption. Section 67 applies with such changes as are necessary. The shares held by a shareholder may be redeemed only in aggregate, unless otherwise provided by the articles of association.

70 (1) Any shareholder holding more than nine-tenths of the shares in a limited liability company and a corresponding share of the votes may demand that the other shareholders have their shares redeemed by that shareholder. In this case, the other shareholders must be requested, under the rules governing notice for general meetings, to transfer their shares to the shareholder within four weeks.

(2) The terms of redemption and the basis used for determining the redemption price must be set out in the request. It must also be stated in connection with the redemption that in the event that no agreement can be reached on the redemption price, such price will be fixed under the rules in section 67(3) by an expert appointed by the court with jurisdiction over the place where the registered office of the limited liability company is situated. If the redemption is carried out for the purpose of a takeover bid under the rules in Part 8 of the Danish Securities Trading Act, the rules in that Act on price determination apply to the redemption, unless a minority shareholder requests that the price be fixed by an expert.

The request must also include the information referred to in subsection (3), first sentence. Finally, the request must include a statement by the central governing body of the limited liability company on the general terms of redemption.

(3) Where the expert opinion or a decision made pursuant to section 67(3) leads to a redemption price that is higher than that offered by the shareholder, the higher price will also be valid for the holders of shares of the same class who have not requested an opinion. The costs pertaining to the price determination are payable by the shareholder who has requested such determination. Where an opinion or decision leads to a redemption price that is higher than that offered by the redeeming shareholder, the court that appointed the expert may order the redeeming shareholder to pay the costs in whole or in part.

71 (1) If an acquisition of shares in a limited liability company which has one or more shares admitted to trading on a regulated market in an EU/EEA Member State leads to redemption under section 70(1) or to an obligation to make a general offer under section 31(1) of the Danish Securities Trading Act, the price determination rules provided for in the Securities Trading Act apply, unless a minority shareholder requests that the price be fixed by an expert (see subsection (3)).

(2) If the redemption is carried out for the purpose of a takeover bid (see section 70(2), third sentence), the consideration for the redemption may be in the same form as specified in the offeror's initial takeover bid, or it may be payable in cash. Minority shareholders are always permitted to demand cash payment as consideration for redemption.

(3) Any request for redemption in connection with a takeover bid (see section 70(2), third sentence) must be made within three months of expiry of the offer period stipulated in the offeror's takeover bid.

(4) The Commerce and Companies Agency prescribes rules governing offe ror redemptions of shares which are held by the other shareholders, and also specify how share acquisitions are to be determined in connection with a takeover bid (see section 70(2), third sentence).

72 (1) If all of the shareholders have not transferred their shares to the redeeming shareholder within the time limit provided for in section 70(1), they must be requested, by a statement published in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system, to transfer their shares in accordance with section 70, and must be given three months to do so.

(2) The statement under subsection (1) must include the information referred to in section 70(2) and the date of any expert opinion or court order given under section 67(1). Finally, it must be stated that the shares, after expiry of the time limit in subsection (1), will be registered in the name of the redeeming shareholder in the limited liability company's register of shareholders, and that the right to demand an expert opinion will be forfeited on expiry of this time limit.

(3) Where any shares have not been transferred to the redeeming shareholder within the time limit stipulated in the statement published in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system pursuant to subsection (1), the redeeming shareholder must, as soon as possible, without qualifications and in favour of the relevant shareholders, deposit the amount necessary to redeem the shares that have not been transferred (see the Danish Escrow Account Act (lov om skyldneres ret til at frigøre sig ved deponering)).

(4) Upon the deposit, the share certificates for the redeemed shares will be considered cancelled. The company's central governing body must ensure that the new share certificates are endorsed to the effect that they replace the cancelled share certificates.

73 If a shareholder holds more than nine-tenths of the shares in a company and a corresponding share of the votes, each minority shareholder of the company may demand redemption by that shareholder. Section 67(3), the second sentence of section 70(2), and subsection (3), second and third sentences, apply with such changes as are necessary.

Amortisation

74 (1) The articles of association of the limited liability company may include provisions for a reduction of the share capital by redemption of shares in accordance with existing applicable rules.

(2) In connection with a capital reduction under subsection (1), the shareholders may be paid by the issue of bonds if so provided for in the articles of association.

(3) Amortisation may be initiated by the central governing body in respect of shares subscribed for after inclusion of the provisions on reduction in the articles of association. The central governing body can make the necessary amendments to the articles of association.

75 Capital reductions by way of amortisation can be implemented without publication of a request in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system asking creditors of the limited liability company to file their claims against the company, provided that the reduction takes place by way of cancellation of shares that have been fully paid up (see section 193).

Part 6

General meetings

Shareholders’ rights to pass resolutions

76 (1) The shareholders’ rights to pass resolutions are exercised at the general meetings of the limited liability company.

(2) Shareholders can pass resolutions at a general meeting without complying with the requirements as to form and notice in this Act and the company’s articles of association, provided that all shareholders agree to do so (but see subsection (5)).

(3) Resolutions made by shareholders at a general meeting can, in general, be passed without complying with the rules on form and notice provided by this Act (but see subsection (5)). A resolution to that effect must be passed by unanimous agreement, and rules that provide for passing such resolutions must be set out in the articles of association. Section 106 applies to any amendment to or abolition of such rules. However, where shareholders holding more than 10% of the share capital so request, general meetings must be held by physical attendance.

(4) The central governing body may determine that persons other than those specified in this Act are entitled to attend general meetings, unless otherwise provided by the articles of association.

(5) The shareholders of state-owned public limited companies and public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market in an EU or EEA Member State may not pass resolutions without complying with the rules on form and notice provided by this Act (see subsections (2) and (3)). This also applies to public limited companies whose general meetings must be open to the press by virtue of statute or an executive order.

(6) General meetings of state-owned public limited companies must be open to the press.

Electronic general meetings

77 (1) Unless otherwise provided by the company’s articles of association, the central governing body may determine that in addition to a right to physically attend general meetings, shareholders may be given the right to attend electronically, including using electronic voting that does not require physical attendance at the meeting, so that the general meeting will be partly electronic (see subsections (3) to (6)).

(2) The general meeting may resolve to hold general meetings electronically without any opportunity for parties to physically attend, so that the meeting is held by electronic means alone (see subsections (3) to (6)). A resolution to that effect must explain how electronic media can be used to attend the general meeting. The resolution must be recorded in the company’s articles of association. Section 106 applies to the resolution and to any amendments made to it.

(3) The central governing body must prescribe the requirements for electronic systems to be used to conduct general meetings that are held electronically, in whole or in part. The notice convening the general meeting must specify those requirements and explain how shareholders can register to attend the general meeting electronically and where they can find information about the procedure for attending.

(4) General meetings may only be held electronically, in whole or part, if the central governing body of the limited liability company ensures that the general meeting can be properly conducted. The system to be used must be set up in a manner that satisfies the requirements of this Act for holding general meetings, including shareholder rights to attend, speak and vote at general meetings. The system must also be able to reliably determine which shareholders attend the general meeting, the capital and voting rights represented by them, and the outcome of voting.

(5) If a public limited company has issued bearer shares without specifying a date of registration (see section 84), the notice convening the general meeting (see subsection (3)) must also specify how the holders of such shares must establish their right to electronically attend the general meeting.

(6) All of the provisions in this Act that regulate the holding of general meetings apply, with any necessary modifications, to general meetings conducted in whole or in part by electronic means.

Right to attend and vote, etc.

78 All shareholders are entitled to attend and speak at general meetings (but see section 84(1)).

79 If a share is jointly held by multiple shareholders, the rights attaching to the share may only be exercised against the limited liability company by a proxy jointly appointed by such shareholders.

80 (1) All shareholders are entitled to attend general meetings by proxy.

(2) The proxy must produce a written and dated instrument of proxy. Proxy appointments may be revoked at any time. Notice of revocation must be given in writing and may be given to the limited liability company. Shareholders can make and revoke proxy appointments electronically.

(3) If a proxy has been appointed by more than one shareholder, the proxy may vote differently on behalf of the different shareholders.

(4) Management of the limited liability company can be appointed as proxy for terms no longer than 12 months and only for the purpose of a specific general meeting for which the agenda is known in advance.

(5) Any public limited company whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market must make hard copy or electronic proxy forms available to all shareholders entitled to vote at general meetings and must offer the shareholders at least one method of notifying the company of electronic proxy appointments. The appointment of a proxy, the notice of the appointment to the public limited company, and the issue of any voting instructions to the proxy can only be made subject to such formal requirements as are necessary and reasonable for the purpose of identifying the shareholder and the proxy as well as verifying the contents of the voting instructions. This also applies to the revocation of proxy appointments.

81 All shareholders and proxies may attend general meetings together with an adviser.

82 Shareholders’ agreements are not binding on the limited liability company, or with regard to resolutions passed at general meetings.

83 If a public limited company whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market has designated a bank through which the company's shareholders may exercise their financial rights, the company must notify the shareholders.

84 (1) In public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market, a shareholder’s right to attend a general meeting and to vote on their shares must be determined on the basis of the shares held by the shareholder at the date of registration. The date of registration is one week before the date of the general meeting. The articles of association of a public limited company may provide that shareholders are required to notify the company that they will attend a general meeting no later than three days before the date of the meeting.

(2) The shareholding of each individual shareholder must be determined at the date of registration, based on the number of shares held by that shareholder as registered in the register of shareholders and on any notice of ownership received by the public limited company for the purpose of registration in the register of shareholders, but not yet registered.

(3) In public limited companies whose shares are not admitted to trading on a regulated market, and in private limited companies, the articles of association may provide that subsections (1) and (2) apply with such changes as are necessary.

85 Voting rights may not be exercised where they attach to shares held by a limited liability company itself, or to shares in a parent company that are held by a subsidiary. Such shares are excluded where the validity of any resolution or the exercise of any power is subject to the consent of all shareholders or to a certain majority of votes of either the shares represented at the general meeting or of the entire share capital of the limited liability company.

86 A shareholder may not participate, on their own behalf, by proxy or acting as a proxy for others, in any vote at a general meeting that relates to legal proceedings against the shareholder or relates to the shareholder’s liability to the company. A shareholder may not participate in any vote relating to legal proceedings against others or relating to the liability of others if that shareholder has a significant interest in the matter which may be contrary to the interests of the limited liability company.

Time and place

87 General meetings must be held at the registered office of the limited liability company, unless the articles of association specify another place at which the meetings must or can be held. If special circumstances require it, a general meeting may, in isolated cases, be held elsewhere.

88 (1) The annual general meeting must pass resolutions on the following:

1. adoption of the annual report;

2. appropriation of profit or loss as recorded in the adopted annual report;

3. any change to a resolution about auditing the limited liability company’s future annual reports if the company is not subject to audit obligations under the Danish Financial Statements Act or any other statute; and

4. any other business to be transacted by the general meeting pursuant to the company’s articles of association.

(2) The annual general meeting must be held in time for the adopted annual report to reach the Commerce and Companies Agency within the time limit specified in the Financial Statements Act. The annual report must be submitted to the general meeting.

Extraordinary general meetings

89 (1) Extraordinary general meetings must be held upon request from the central governing body, the supervisory board or the auditor elected by the general meeting.

(2) For private limited companies, any shareholder can request an extraordinary general meeting. Extraordinary general meetings to consider specific issues must be convened within two weeks of receipt of a request to such effect.

(3) For public limited companies, the articles of association may provide that shareholders that hold 5% of the share capital, or any smaller fraction of the capital as prescribed by the articles of association, and shareholders that are so authorised under the articles can request an extraordinary general meeting in writing. Extraordinary general meetings to consider specific issues must be convened within two weeks of receipt of a request to such effect.

Agenda

90 (1) All shareholders are entitled to nominate specific issues for inclusion on the agenda for an annual general meeting (but see subsection (2)).

(2) In public limited companies, shareholders must submit a written request to the central governing body in order to nominate a specific issue for consideration at the annual general meeting. Shareholders are entitled to have their nominated issues included on the agenda for the general meeting where their request is received by the central governing body at least six weeks before the date of the meeting. If the request is received less than six weeks before the date of the general meeting, the central governing body must decide whether the request has been made with enough time for the issues to be included on the agenda.

(3) No later than eight weeks before the scheduled date for an annual general meeting, public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market must announce the date for the meeting as well as the deadline for any shareholder requests to include specific issues on the agenda, unless both dates are specified in the articles of association.

91 Any matter which is not on the agenda can only be determined by the general meeting if all of the shareholders consent. However, at any time the annual general meeting can pass resolutions under section 88(1), resolutions to be passed at annual general meetings under the articles of association, and resolutions to convene extraordinary general meetings to consider specific issues.

Electronic communications

92 (1) The general meeting may pass a resolution on electronic means of communication, enabling the limited liability company and its shareholders to exchange documents electronically and communicate by e-mail instead of sending and submitting documents in hard copy form under this Act (see subsections (2) and (3)). Electronic modes of communication may be used by the limited liability company and its shareholders regardless of any requirements as to form contained in the provisions that specifically govern the documents and notices (but see subsection (5) and section 12(1), third sentence).

(2) The resolution referred to in subsection (1) must specify which notices, etc. are covered by the resolution as well as how the electronic modes of communication must or can be used. The resolution must also state where the shareholders can find information about the requirements for the systems to be used and the procedures to be followed when communicating electronically.

(3) The resolution made by the general meeting under subsections (1) and (2) must be included in the articles of association (but see subsection (4)). Section 106 applies to the resolution and to any amendments made to it.

(4) Even if the general meeting has not resolved to introduce electronic communication between the limited liability company and its shareholders under subsection (1), the company and one or more shareholders can agree to communicate electronically.

(5) The right to use electronic communication as set out in subsection (1) must not replace public notification of meetings or notices to be published in the Danish Official Gazette (the Statstidende) or in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system where the limited liability company is required by statute to provide notices, etc. to its shareholders by publication of an advertisement or statement in the Official Gazette or in the Agency’s IT system. This does not apply to the circumstances outlined in section 95(3), second sentence.

(6) For subsections (1) and (4), limited liability companies must request that the shareholders recorded in the register of shareholders provide an electronic address to which notices, etc. can be sent. The shareholders are responsible for ensuring that the company has their correct electronic address. The limited liability company must pay its own costs for electronic communication.

Notice of general meetings

93 (1) General meetings must be convened and organised by the central governing body.

(2) If a limited liability company has no central governing body, or if the central governing body fails to convene a general meeting required to be held by statute, by the articles of association or by a resolution of the company at a general meeting, such general meeting must be convened by the Commerce and Companies Agency upon request from a member of the company’s supreme or central governing body, the auditor elected by the general meeting, if any (see section 144(1)), or a shareholder. The Agency may determine the agenda for the general meeting.

(3) General meetings convened by the Commerce and Companies Agency must be presided over by a person authorised by the Agency for such purpose, and the central governing body of the limited liability company must provide such person with the company’s register of shareholders, minutes of general meetings, and audit records where such records must be kept under the Danish Act on Approved Auditors (lov om godkendte revisorer) or any other statute, or where the auditor has agreed with the company to keep such records. All expenses incidental to the general meeting must initially be paid for by the Commerce and Companies Agency, but must be finally paid by the limited liability company.

(4) Notwithstanding section 77, the Commerce and Companies Agency may decide that a general meeting that it convenes under subsection (2) of this section can only be attended in person, or can be held as an electronic meeting in whole or in part, and that, notwithstanding section 87, the meeting must be held in the municipality in which the Agency is situated.

94 (1) Notice of general meetings must be given no earlier than four weeks before the meeting date, and no later than two weeks before the meeting date unless the articles of association stipulate a longer period of notice. If the general meeting is adjourned to a later date that is more than four weeks after the date of the meeting, notice of the adjourned meeting must be provided.

(2) In public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market, notice of general meetings must be given no earlier than five weeks before the meeting date, and no later than three weeks before the meeting date unless the articles of association stipulate a longer period of notice (but see sections 339(4) and 343).

95 (1) Notice must be given in accordance with the provisions in the articles of association.

(2) The general meeting may resolve that notice must be provided on the limited liability company’s website (but see subsection (3)). Such a resolution must be included in the company’s articles of association. Section 106 applies to the resolution and any amendments made to it.

(3) In public limited companies, notice of general meetings must, where requested, be given in writing to any shareholder registered in the register of shareholders. If the shares in a public limited company can be issued to bearer, the notice must be published in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

(4) Regardless of whether notice is also given by other means, notice of a general meeting for a public limited company whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market must be published on the company’s website. The costs of the publication must be paid by the company.

96 (1) Notices of general meetings must specify the time and place for the meeting as well as agenda items covering the business to be dealt with at the meeting. If any proposed resolution to amend the articles of association is to be put forward for consideration at the general meeting, the main contents of the resolution must be specified in the notice.

(2) Notices of general meetings at which resolutions are to be passed in accordance with sections 77(2), 92(1) or (5), or section 107(1) or (2) must set out the full text of the proposed resolution to amend the articles.

97 (1) In public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market, the notice must include the following information in addition to that specified in section 96:

1. the amount of the share capital and the voting rights of the shareholders;

2. a clear and accurate description of the procedures to be observed by the shareholders in order to attend and vote at the general meeting (see subsection (2));

3. the date of registration (see section 84(1)), specifying that only persons who are shareholders at such date are entitled to attend and vote at the general meeting;

4. where and how the full, unabridged texts of the documents referred to in section 99(1), paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the agenda of the meeting are available; and

5. the website on which the information specified in section 99 will be made available.

(2) A clear and accurate description of the procedures to be observed by the shareholders in order to attend and vote at the general meeting as provided by subsection (1), paragraph 2, must include

1. the shareholders’ rights to ask questions, including a time limit, if applicable (see section 102(3));

2. the procedure for voting by proxy, particularly the voting forms to be used, and the means of communication accepted by the limited liability company in connection with electronic notice of proxy appointments; and

3. the procedures for voting by post or electronically.

(3) In state-owned public limited companies, the notice of general meetings must include the full text of all proposed resolutions to be submitted to the meeting and, in the case of extraordinary general meetings, also the reason for holding the meeting. The notice must be published in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system at the same time or before it is provided to the shareholders.

98 In public limited companies, the agenda and the full text of any proposal to be submitted to the general meeting and, in the case of the annual general meeting the audited annual report, must be made available for inspection by the shareholders no later than two weeks before the date of the meeting (but see section 99).

99 (1) A public limited company whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market must, for a consecutive period of three weeks beginning no later than three weeks before the general meeting, including the date of the meeting, make at least the following information available to shareholders on the company's website:

1. The notice convening the meeting.

2. The aggregate number of shares and voting rights at the date of the notice, including the aggregate number for each class of shares if the company’s share capital is divided into two or more classes.

3. The documents to be submitted to the general meeting.

4. The agenda and the full text of any proposals to be submitted to the general meeting.

5. The forms to be used for voting by proxy and by post, if applicable, unless such forms are sent directly to the shareholders. If, for technical reasons, such forms cannot be made available over the internet, the limited liability company must specify on its website how they may be obtained in hard copy and must send the forms to any shareholder who requests them. All costs involved must be paid by the company.

(2) If notice of a general meeting under sections 339(4) and 343 is provided less than three weeks before the date of the meeting, the time limit specified in subsection (1) will be reduced accordingly.

Conduct at general meetings

100 (1) General meetings must be held in Danish (but see subsections (2) to (4)).

(2) The general meeting may resolve by a simple majority of votes to hold the meeting in a language other than Danish, offering all participants simultaneous interpretation to and from Danish. The resolution can be included in the articles of association without a separate resolution being passed by the general meeting to such effect.

(3) The general meeting may resolve by a simple majority of votes to hold the meeting in Swedish, Norwegian or English without offering all participants simultaneous interpretation to and from Danish. The resolution may be included in the articles of association without a separate resolution being passed by the general meeting.

(4) The general meeting may resolve that the meeting must be conducted in a language other than Danish, Swedish, Norwegian or English without offering all participants simultaneous interpretation to and from Danish. A resolution to such effect must be included in the articles of association, and section 107(2), paragraph 6, and section 110 apply to the resolution and any amendments made to it.

(5) If it has been resolved to conduct the general meeting in a language other than Danish, the meeting may resolve by a simple majority of votes that all future general meetings must be conducted in Danish. The resolution may be included in the articles of association without a separate resolution being passed by the general meeting. If a resolution to hold general meetings in a language other than Danish is already included in the articles of association, a resolution made under the first sentence of this subsection must specify whether the new resolution is to be included in the articles of association or whether no provisions regarding the language to be used at general meetings will be included in the articles of association.

(6) All documents prepared for use by a general meeting at or after the general meeting must be in Danish (but see subsections (7) and (8)).

(7) The general meeting may resolve by a simple majority of votes that the documents referred to in subsection (6) must be prepared in Swedish, Norwegian or English. Such resolution may be included in the articles of association without a separate resolution being passed by the general meeting.

(8) The general meeting may resolve that the documents referred to in subsection (6) must be prepared in a language other than Danish, Swedish, Norwegian or English. A resolution to such effect must be included in the articles of association, and section 107(2), paragraph 7, and section 110 apply to the resolution and to any amendments made to it.

101 (1) A chairman of the general meeting, who may or may not be a shareholder, must be elected, unless otherwise provided by the articles of association.

(2) The chairman must preside over the general meeting and ensure that it is conducted properly and efficiently. The chairman has all powers necessary for that purpose, including the right to manage discussions, identify matters to be voted on, decide when to close discussions, bring speeches to an end and, if necessary, expel participants from the general meeting.

(3) Minutes recording the proceedings at general meetings must be kept and must be signed by the chairman. All resolutions must be recorded in the limited liability company’s minute book.

(4) No later than two weeks after the general meeting, the minutes of the meeting or a certified copy of the minutes must be made available to the shareholders.

(5) Public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market must, for every resolution passed, specify at least

1. the number of shares for which valid votes have been cast;

2. the proportion of the share capital represented by such votes;

3. the total number of valid votes;

4. the number of votes in favour of and against each proposed resolution; and

5. the number of abstentions, if relevant.

(6) If none of the shareholders of a public limited company whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market request a complete account of the vote as provided in subsection (5), only the result of the vote needs to be specified in order to establish that each resolution was passed by the required majority.

(7) A public limited company whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market must announce the results of all votes on its website no later than two weeks after the general meeting.

(8) State-owned public limited companies must file a certified copy of the minutes of general meetings with the Commerce and Companies Agency on or before the date the minutes are made available to the shareholders as provided in subsection (4).

102 (1) Upon request from a shareholder and when deemed by the supreme governing body not to cause any significant detriment to the limited liability company, the company’s management must disclose to the general meeting the information at hand about all matters of importance to the assessment of the annual report and the company’s position in general, or to any proposed resolution put forward for vote at the general meeting. The disclosure requirement also applies to the limited liability company’s relationship with other group companies.

(2) If the answer to a request requires information that is not at hand at the general meeting, such information must be made available to the shareholders no later than two weeks after the meeting and must also be sent to any shareholder upon request.

(3) The central governing body may resolve that shareholders can ask questions about agenda items or documents, etc. to be used for the general meeting, subject to a time limit stipulated in the articles of association. The central governing body can make the necessary amendments to the articles of association.

(4) For public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market and state-owned public limited companies, the disclosure requirements under subsections (1) and (2) also apply to questions submitted in writing by a shareholder within the three months prior to the general meeting. The answer may be given in writing, in which case both the question and answer must be made available to the shareholders at the beginning of the general meeting. No answer is required to be provided if the shareholder is not represented at the general meeting. Any questions that are the same may be answered together. Questions will be deemed to be answered if the relevant information is made available on the public limited company’s website in the form of a 'Question and Answer' feature.

103 (1) Any auditor elected by the limited liability company in general meeting (see section 144(1)) is entitled to attend general meetings. The auditor elected by the general meeting (see section 144(1)), if any, must attend general meetings if so requested by a member of the supreme or central governing body, or a shareholder.

(2) At general meetings, the auditor elected by the limited liability company in general meeting (see section 144(1)), if any, must answer questions about the annual report and similar matters considered at the meeting.

(3) Any auditor elected by the general meeting (see section 144(1)) is entitled to attend meetings of the supreme governing body where the annual report and similar matters are considered. The auditor must attend such meetings if so requested by any member of the supreme governing body.

(4) For public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market and state-owned public limited companies, the auditor elected by the company in general meeting must attend the annual general meeting.

Votes

104 (1) Each shareholder must vote on his shares in aggregate, unless otherwise provided by the articles of association (but see subsection (3)).

(2) Shareholders may vote by post by casting their votes in writing before the general meeting. Written votes can only be subject to requirements and restrictions that are reasonably necessary to ensure identification of the shareholders.

(3) For public limited companies, where a shareholder acts in a professional capacity on behalf of other natural or legal persons (clients), that shareholder will be entitled to distinguish between the different shares and exercise the voting rights attaching to the different shares in different ways.

105 Unless otherwise provided by this Act or the articles of association of the limited liability company, all business transacted at general meetings must be decided by a simple majority of votes. If the number of votes for and against are the same, the proposed resolution will not be passed. Where votes involve electing people or casting only one vote against several options, these votes must be decided by a relative, simple majority of votes. Where a vote that involves electing people results in a tie, the tie must be decided by lot, unless otherwise provided by the articles of association.

106 (1) Any proposed resolution to amend the articles of association must be passed by at least two-thirds of the votes cast as well as at least two-thirds of the share capital represented at the general meeting (but see subsection (2)).

Resolutions to amend the articles of association must also fulfil any other requirements stipulated in the articles of association and comply with the special rules in section 107.

(2) Proposed resolutions to amend the articles of association under sections 74(3), 102(3), 175(2), 176(2), 247(1), 265(1), 282(1) and 302(1) cannot be passed by the general meeting.

107 (1) Any proposed resolution to amend the articles of association and increase shareholder obligations to the limited liability company requires the unanimous agreement of all shareholders.

(2) The following proposed resolutions to amend the articles of association must be passed by at least nine-tenths of the votes cast as well as at least nine-tenths of the share capital represented at the general meeting:

1. Resolutions to reduce shareholder rights to receive dividends or distribution of the company’s assets, including subscriptions for shares at a favourable price, to the benefit of parties other than the shareholders and the employees of the limited liability company or its subsidiary.

2. Resolutions to restrict the transferability of the shares or increase existing restrictions, including the adoption of provisions that make share transfers subject to the consent of the limited liability company or prevent any shareholder from holding shares that exceed a specific amount of the share capital.

3. Resolutions to require shareholders to redeem their shares on equal terms, except on dissolution of the company or in circumstances governed by Part 5 of this Act.

4. Resolutions whereby shareholder rights to exercise voting rights in respect of their own or other shareholders' shares is restricted to a specific part of the votes or the voting share capital.

5. Resolutions that the shareholders, in connection with a division of the company, will not receive votes or shares in each of the transferee companies in the same proportion as in the transferor company.

6. Resolutions to hold general meetings in a language other than Danish, Swedish, Norwegian or English without providing for simultaneous interpretation to and from Danish for all participants.

7. Resolutions to adopt a language other than Danish, Swedish, Norwegian or English for internal documents, where internal documents means documents prepared for the company's own use in connection with or following general meetings.

(3) If the limited liability company has more than one class of shares, any proposed amendments to the articles of association that alter the respective rights attaching to each of the share classes, either by changing existing distinctions or creating new distinctions between such rights, must be adopted by shareholders attending the general meeting who hold at least two-thirds of the shares in the share class whose rights will be prejudiced.

Void resolutions by general meetings

108 The general meeting may not pass a resolution if it is clear that that resolution is likely to give certain shareholders or others an undue advantage over other shareholders or the limited liability company.

109 (1) Legal proceedings can be instituted by a shareholder or member of management if a resolution passed by the general meeting has not been lawfully passed or is contrary to this Act or to the limited liability company's articles of association.

(2) Legal proceedings must be instituted no later than three months after the date of the resolution, or the resolution will be deemed to be valid.

(3) Subsection (2) does not apply where

1. the resolution could not be passed lawfully even with the consent of all shareholders;

2. this Act or the limited liability company's articles of association require the consent of all or certain shareholders and such consent has not been obtained;

3. there has been a serious failure to comply with the rules governing notice of general meetings; or

4. a shareholder who has instituted the proceedings after expiry of the time limit specified in subsection (2), but within 24 months after the date of the resolution, can demonstrate reasonable grounds for the delay and the court, for this reason and in view of all the circumstances, finds that it would be clearly unreasonable to apply subsection (2).

(4) If the court finds that the resolution is subject to subsection (1), it must be amended or declared invalid by a court ruling. However, the resolution may only be amended if a claim is made to such effect and the court is able to establish the proper contents of the resolution. The ruling of the court also applies to shareholders who have not instituted proceedings.

Right of redemption

110 (1) Shareholders who have opposed the amendments to the articles of association referred to in section 107(2), paragraphs 1 to 4, 6 and 7, at the general meeting may demand that their shares be redeemed by making a written request to such effect no later than four weeks after the date of the general meeting.

(2) However, if a shareholder has been asked to declare before the vote whether he wishes to exercise the right of redemption under subsection (1), he must make that declaration at the general meeting in order to receive that right.

(3) On redemption, the limited liability company must buy the shareholder’s shares at a price corresponding to the value of the shares, which, in the absence of agreement, must be determined by experts appointed by the court with jurisdiction over the place where the limited liability company's registered office is situated. The experts' costs must be paid by the shareholder that requests the valuation, but may be imposed on the company if the valuation differs significantly from the price proposed by the company and the valuation is used in whole or in part for the redemption.

Either party may bring the expert opinion before the court. Such proceedings must be commenced within three months of receipt of the expert opinion.

Part 7

Management of the limited liability company, etc.

Choice of management structure

111 (1) A limited liability company may adopt one of the following management structures:

1. A management structure where the limited liability company is managed by a board of directors responsible for overall and strategic management. The board of directors must appoint an executive board to be responsible for the day-to-day management of the company. The executive board must either consist of one or more persons who are also members of the board of directors, or consist of persons who are not members of the board of directors. In both cases, persons in charge of day-to-day management will be designated as executive officers, and together they form the executive board of the limited liability company. The majority of the members of the board of directors of public limited companies must be non-executive directors. No executive officer in a public limited company may be chairman or vice-chairman of the board of directors of that company.

2. A management structure where the limited liability company is managed by an executive board. In public limited companies, the executive board must be appointed by a supervisory board that oversees the executive board. No member of the executive board may be a member of the supervisory board.

(2) The board of directors or the supervisory board of a public limited company must have at least three members.

(3) Private limited companies in which the employees exercise their rights under section 140 to elect members to serve on the supreme governing body must have a board of directors or a supervisory board. If a private limited company has no board of directors or supervisory board, but is required to have one of these bodies under the first sentence of this subsection, any proposed resolution to amend the articles of association to the effect that the company must have a board of directors or a supervisory board will be deemed to have been validly passed if it is approved by the vote of any one shareholder.

(4) The provisions in this Act that govern members of the board of directors and the supervisory board also apply to their alternate members.

General provisions on executive and supervisory functions

112 (1) Members of management in a limited liability company must have full legal capacity and cannot be under guardianship under section 5 of the Danish Guardianship Act or be in the care of a surrogate decision-maker designated under section 7 of the Guardianship Act.

(2) Executive officers in public limited shipping companies may be sole proprietorships or partnerships, provided that the proprietors or partners meet the requirements in subsection (1).

113 Members of the board of directors or the supervisory board and executive officers may not engage in speculative transactions involving shares in the limited liability company or in limited liability companies in the same group.

114 For limited liability companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market and state-owned public limited companies, the chairman of the board of directors or the supervisory board may not perform any duties for the limited liability company that are unrelated to his duties as chairman. However, the chairman of the board of directors may, where special circumstances so require, perform any work which he is requested to perform by and for the board of directors.

Duties of the board of directors

115 In limited liability companies that have a board of directors, the board must, in addition to performing overall management duties and strategic management duties and ensuring proper organisation of the company's business, ensure that

1. the bookkeeping and financial reporting procedures are satisfactory, having regard to the circumstances of the limited liability company;

2. adequate risk management and internal control procedures have been established;

3. the board of directors receives ongoing information as necessary about the limited liability company's financial position;

4. the executive board performs its duties properly and as directed by the board of directors; and that

5. the financial resources of the limited liability company are adequate at all times, and that the company has sufficient liquidity to meet its current and future liabilities as they fall due. The limited liability company is therefore required to continuously assess its financial position and ensure that the existing capital resources are adequate.

Duties of the supervisory board

116 In limited liability companies that have a supervisory board, the board must ensure that

1. the bookkeeping and financial reporting procedures are satisfactory, having regard to the circumstances of the limited liability company;

2. adequate risk management and internal control procedures have been established;

3. the supervisory board receives ongoing information as necessary about the limited liability company's financial position;

4. the executive board performs its duties properly; and

5. the financial resources of the limited liability company are adequate at all times, and that the company has sufficient liquidity to meet its current and future liabilities as they fall due. The limited liability company is therefore required to continuously assess its financial position and ensure that the existing capital resources are adequate.

Duties of the executive board

117 (1) In limited liability companies that are managed under section 111(1), paragraph 1, the executive board is in charge of day-to-day management. The executive board must follow the guidelines and directions issued by the board of directors. Day-to-day management does not include decisions of an unusual nature or of major importance, having regard to the circumstances of the limited liability company. Such decisions may only be made by the executive board if specifically authorised by the board of directors, unless it will cause considerable inconvenience to the limited liability company's activities to wait for authorisation by the board of directors. If so, the board of directors must be notified of the decision as soon as possible.

(2) In limited liability companies falling within section 111(1), paragraph 2, the executive board is responsible for overall, strategic and day-to-day management. The executive board must also ensure proper organisation of the limited liability company's business.

118 (1) The executive board must ensure that the limited liability company's bookkeeping complies with the applicable statutory rules, and that its assets are properly managed.

(2) The executive board must also ensure that the financial resources of the limited liability company are adequate at all times, and that the company has sufficient liquidity to meet its current and future liabilities as they fall due. The limited liability company is required to continuously assess its financial position and ensure that the existing capital resources are adequate.

Loss of capital

119 If it is established that the equity of a limited liability company represents less than half of the subscribed capital, the management of the company must ensure that a general meeting is held within six months. However, regardless of the value of the company's subscribed capital, the first sentence will apply to all cases where the company's equity falls below DKK 62,500. At the general meeting, the central governing body must report the financial position of the limited liability company and, if necessary, submit a proposal for measures that should be taken, including a proposal for dissolution of the limited liability company.

Election of members of the board of directors and the supervisory board

120 (1) In public limited companies, the majority of the members of the board of directors or the supervisory board must be elected by the general meeting.

(2) The articles of association may provide public authorities or other parties with the right to appoint one or more members of the board of directors or the supervisory board.

(3) Before holding elections for members of the board of directors or the supervisory board at the general meeting, public limited companies must provide information on managerial posts held by the candidates in other commercial enterprises, except for posts held in the public limited company's own wholly owned subsidiaries. If a candidate is a member of management in both another parent company and in one or more of its wholly owned subsidiaries, notwithstanding the first sentence, it will be sufficient to state the name of the parent company and the number of subsidiaries in which the candidate is a member of management. The shareholders may deviate from this subsection by unanimous decision.

(4) The members of the board of directors or supervisory board elected by the general meeting hold office in the period specified in the articles of association. The members' term of office expires with the closing of an annual general meeting held no later than four years after their election.

Resignation of members of the board of directors and the supervisory board

121 (1) Members of the board of directors or the supervisory board may resign at any time. Notice of resignation must be given to the board of directors or the supervisory board of the limited liability company and, if the member has not been elected by the general meeting, also to the appointing party. Members of the board of directors or the supervisory board may be removed at any time by the electing or appointing party.

(2) If there is no alternate member to replace the member, the other members of the board of directors or the supervisory board must arrange for the election of a new member to replace the resigning member during the remainder of his term of office. This also applies if a member elected by the employees under section 140 or section 141 ceases to be employed by the limited liability company or within the group. However, if the election is to be held at the general meeting, it may be postponed until the next annual general meeting for the election of members of the board of directors or supervisory board, provided that the remaining members and alternate members of the board of directors or the supervisory board can form a quorum.

Election of chairman

122 The board of directors or the supervisory board of a public limited company elects its own chairman, unless otherwise provided by the articles of association. In the event of a tied vote, the election will be resolved by lot.

Meetings of the board of directors and the supervisory board

123 The chairman of the board of directors or the supervisory board of a public limited company must ensure that the supreme governing body convenes meetings when necessary and that all members are invited to attend. Any member of management, or the company's auditor elected by the general meeting under section 144, can demand that the supreme governing body be invited to attend. Executive officers, including executive officers who are not members of the board of directors or the supervisory board, have a right to attend and speak at meetings of the board of directors or the supervisory board, unless otherwise determined in each case by the board of directors or the supervisory board.

Quorum of the board of directors and the supervisory board

124 (1) The board of directors or the supervisory board forms a quorum when more than half of its members are represented, unless a higher number of members is required by the articles of association. However, resolutions cannot be passed without all members being given, as far as possible, access to participate in the transaction of the business.

(2) If a member is absent, and an alternate member has been elected, the alternate member must have the right to replace the member for as long as he is absent. Unless otherwise resolved by the board of directors or the supervisory board, or provided in the articles of association, in special cases members can grant a proxy to another member instead of calling an alternate member if it is considered appropriate having regard to the issue to be discussed.

(3) All resolutions by the board of directors or the supervisory board must be passed by a simple majority of votes, unless a special majority is required by the articles of association. It may be stipulated in the articles of association that the chairman, or in his absence the vice-chairman, casts the deciding vote in the event that there is a tied vote.

Meetings of the board of directors and the supervisory board by written procedure or electronic means

125 (1) Meetings of the board of directors and the supervisory board may be held by written procedure to the extent that this does not prevent the board from performing its duties. Any member of management may, however, demand an oral discussion. The provisions of this Act that apply to meetings of the board of directors and the supervisory board also apply to meetings by written procedure, subject to any necessary amendments.

(2) Meetings of the board of directors and the supervisory board may be held electronically to the extent that this does not prevent the board from performing its duties. Any member of management may, however, demand an oral discussion. The provisions of the Danish Act on Public and Private Limited Companies that apply to meetings of the board of directors and the supervisory board, and to electronic communications, also apply to meetings held electronically and to all communication for this purpose, subject to any necessary deviations.

Language of meetings of the board of directors and the supervisory board

126 (1) Meetings of the board of directors or the supervisory board must be held in Danish (but see subsections (2) and (3)).

(2) Meetings of the board of directors or the supervisory board may, if so determined by the majority, be held in a language other than Danish if all participants are at the same time offered simultaneous interpretation to and from Danish. Any decision to hold meetings in a language other than Danish without simultaneous interpretation must be unanimously agreed by the members of the board of directors or the supervisory board.

(3) Notwithstanding subsection (2), meetings of the board of directors and the supervisory board may be held in Swedish, Norwegian or English without simultaneous interpretation if that language is also the official group language as provided by the articles of association.

(4) Where documents that are to be used for the purposes of carrying out the work of the board of directors or the supervisory board are not prepared in Danish, any member of the board of directors or the supervisory board may demand that such documents be translated into Danish. This does not apply, however, if the documents are prepared in Swedish, Norwegian or English, and such language is the official group language as provided by the company's articles of association.

Voidable transactions and agreements with sole shareholders

127 (1) Members of management in a limited liability company may not enter into any transaction that is clearly capable of providing certain shareholders or others with an undue advantage over other shareholders or the limited liability company. Members of management in the limited liability company must not comply with any resolution passed by the general meeting or any other governing body if that resolution is invalid or contravenes the law or the company's articles of association.

(2) Agreements entered into between a sole shareholder and the limited liability company are only valid if drafted in a manner that can subsequently be verified, except for agreements made on usual terms in the ordinary course of business.

Minutes of proceedings at meetings of the supreme governing body

128 (1) If the supreme governing body is made up of more than one member, minutes must be taken to record the proceedings at its meetings, and those minutes must be signed by all members present.

(2) Any member who dissents on a matter at the meeting is entitled to have his opinion entered in the records of the meeting.

Audit records

129 The members of the supreme governing body must sign the records prepared by the auditor if the auditor is required by the Danish Act on Registered and State-Authorised Public Accountants or any other statute to keep audit records, or if the auditor has kept such records in accordance with an agreement with the limited liability company.

Rules of procedure for the board of directors and the supervisory board

130 (1) If the board of directors or the supervisory board of a limited liability company is made up of more than one member, rules of procedure to govern the performance of the board's duties must be adopted.

(2) For the purpose of drawing up the rules of procedure, the nature of the limited liability company's business and its needs must be taken into account. In this regard, the board of directors or the supervisory board should consider in particular whether the rules of procedure should include provisions on the composition of the board, the division of responsibilities, supervision of the executive board's day-to-day management, the keeping of books, minutes, etc., any written and electronic meetings, the duty of confidentiality, alternate members, accounting control, signing of audit records, and provisions to ensure that there is the requisite basis for auditing.

(3) Rules of procedure adopted by the board of directors or the supervisory board in state-owned public limited companies must be published in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system within four weeks of their adoption. The same time limit applies if a public limited company converts to a state-owned public limited company under Part 20, or in the event that changes are made to the rules of procedure for a state-owned public limited company.

Disqualification

131 No member of management may participate in the transaction of business that involves any agreement between the limited liability company and that member, or legal proceedings against that member, or the transaction of business that involves any agreement between the limited liability company and a third party, or legal proceedings against a third party, if the member has a material interest in such business and that material interest could conflict with the interests of the limited liability company.

Duty of confidentiality

132 Members of the board of directors or the supervisory board, executive officers, valuation experts and scrutinisers, including their assistants and alternates, may not make unauthorised disclosure of any information gained in the performance of their duties.

Disclosure of information, etc. to the auditor

133 (1) The management of a limited liability company must provide any auditor or scrutiniser who is elected by the general meeting to make a declaration on the limited liability company's situation with such information as is likely to influence the assessment of the limited liability company and, if the limited liability company is a parent company, its group as defined by the Danish Financial Statements Act.

(2) The management of a limited liability company must provide any auditor or scrutiniser who is elected by the general meeting to make a declaration on the limited liability company's situation with access to make such examinations as he deems necessary to perform the work, and must provide the auditor or scrutiniser with such information and assistance as he deems necessary to perform the work.

(3) The management of a Danish limited liability company, where that company is a subsidiary in a group of companies, owes a similar duty to the auditor of the parent company.

Notification of group relations

134 The central governing body of a Danish parent company must notify the central governing body of a subsidiary as soon as any group relationship has been established. The central governing body of a Danish subsidiary must provide the parent company with such information as is necessary to assess the group's position and the results from its activities.

Right of representation and power to bind the company

135 (1) Members of the board of directors and the executive board act on behalf of the limited liability company in relation to third parties.

(2) The limited liability company is bound by agreements made on behalf of the company by the entire central governing body, by a member of the board of directors, or by a member of the executive board. Members of the supervisory board have no power to bind the limited liability company.

(3) The power of each member of the board of directors and executive board to bind the company, as conferred by subsection (2), may be restricted by the articles of association so that it can only be exercised by members acting jointly or by one or more specific members acting jointly or alone. No other restrictions on the power to bind the company may be registered.

(4) Notwithstanding subsection (1), where limited liability companies have a supervisory board, the supervisory board may act on behalf of the company where legal action is brought against one or more members of the company's executive board. The supervisory board may also act on behalf of the company where legal action is brought against the company by a member of its executive board. The same applies where members of the executive board are either disqualified or cannot represent the company for any other reason.

(5) Power of procuration may only be granted by the central governing body.

136 (1) Any agreement or commitment that is made on behalf of the limited liability company by persons authorised to bind the company under section 135 will be binding on the limited liability company, unless

1. the persons authorised to bind the company have not acted within the limitations of their powers as provided by this Act;

2. the agreement or commitment does not fall within the objects of the limited liability company, and the company proves that the third party knew or should have known this; or

3. the person authorised to bind the company has exceeded his authority or has seriously failed to act in the company's interests, and the third party knew or should have known this.

(2) It will not be sufficient evidence under subsection (1), paragraph 2, of this provision that the limited liability company has published a statement of its objects, as provided by the articles of association, in the Commerce and Companies

Agency's IT system.

137 Where an election or appointment of members of the management of a limited liability company has been published in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system in accordance with section 14, no defect in the election or appointment may be relied upon against any third party, unless the limited liability company proves that the third party had knowledge of that defect.

Remuneration for members of management

138 (1) Members of management in a limited liability company may receive fixed or variable remuneration. The amount of remuneration may not exceed what is considered usual, taking into account the nature and extent of the work, and what is considered reasonable with regard to the limited liability company's financial position and, in the case of parent companies, the group's financial position.

(2) If a limited liability company is administered in bankruptcy, members of its management must repay any variable remuneration received in the five-year period preceding the date of presentation of the bankruptcy petition, even if they have acted in good faith, and provided that the limited liability company was insolvent when the amount of the variable remuneration was fixed.

139 (1) Before a public limited company whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market can enter into a specific agreement for incentive-based remuneration for a member of its management, the limited liability company's supreme governing body must set general guidelines for incentive-based remuneration for the company's management. The guidelines must be considered and adopted by the limited liability company in general meeting.

(2) If the general meeting has adopted guidelines for incentive-based remuneration for the limited liability company's management under subsection (1), a provision must be included in the company's articles of association to that effect. Inclusion of the provision in the articles of association is not subject to a separate resolution by the general meeting. As soon as possible following their adoption by the general meeting, the guidelines must be made available to the public on the limited liability company's website, and must specify the date they were adopted.

(3) Specific agreements for incentive-based remuneration under subsection (1) may be entered into the day after publication of the guidelines, as adopted, on the company's website (see subsection (2)), and not before. When entering into specific incentive agreements, the existing guidelines, as adopted, must be observed.

(4) Subsections (1) to (3) apply also to any agreements to renew or amend specific existing agreements for incentive-based remuneration for members of the limited liability company's management.

Part 8

Employee representation

Representation at company level

140 (1) In limited liability companies that have employed an average of at least 35 employees for the preceding three years, the employees are entitled to elect representatives and alternate representatives to the company’s supreme governing body, corresponding to half the number of the other management members. However, the employees always have the right to elect at least two representatives with alternate members. If the number of representatives to be elected by the employees is not a whole number, it must be rounded up.

(2) The employees are entitled to elect fewer representatives than the number of representatives specified by subsection (1) where that many representatives cannot be elected.

Representation at group level

141 (1) Section 140 also applies to the employees of a Danish parent company (see sections 6 and 7) and its subsidiaries registered in Denmark as well as branches of foreign subsidiaries.

(2) If the parent company is subject to section 140, its employees are entitled to elect two representatives, with alternate representatives. The total number of employee representatives elected to the parent company’s supreme governing body must constitute half the number of the other members, provided that the number of employee representatives is at least three. However, the employees are entitled to elect a lesser number if the number of representatives specified in the first sentence cannot be elected.

(3) Subject to the rules on cross-border mergers and divisions in Part 16 of the Danish Act on SEs (lov om SEselskaber), the parent company in general meeting may decide that the employees of one or more foreign subsidiaries are eligible to be elected and are entitled to vote. If the group has employees in Danish subsidiaries, those employees may elect at least one representative at any time. If the employees of the Danish subsidiaries constitute more than 10% of the total number of employees eligible to be elected, such employees may elect at least two representatives. If the majority required for representation at group level as provided in section 142 is not reached, but the majority of the Danish subsidiaries vote in favour of group representation, employee representation will be deemed to have been adopted by the employees of the Danish subsidiaries to the effect that elections for group representatives will only be held in the Danish subsidiaries.

Election of employee representatives

142 A proposed resolution to elect board members under sections 140 and 141 cannot be adopted unless it is passed by at least half of the employees in the limited liability company and its subsidiaries, respectively, unless the management and employees agree not to vote on this. Notice of the resolution must be given to the supreme governing body in a manner that can subsequently be verified.

143 The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe rules on the following:

1. which persons are considered employees for the purpose of employee representation;

2. calculation of the average number of employees under sections 140 and 141;

3. the conduct for elections under sections 140 to 142, including rules to ensure secret ballot;

4. derogation from any of the specific rules made under this section, where derogation is by agreement between the management and employees;

5. how the employees in limited liability companies and groups in which board members have been elected under sections 140 and 141 must be informed about the company’s affairs;

6. security of employment for employee representatives in management bodies, including representatives elected by voluntary arrangements, and resolution of related disagreements;

7. the consequences of any contravention of statute and rules made under statute;

8. that the register of shareholders must also be made available to employee representatives in companies and parent companies in which no employees have been elected to the board of directors under sections 140 and 141; and

9. requirements for providing notice of general meetings to the employees of the company and the group, respectively, if the employees have notified the board of directors that employee representatives are to be elected.

Part 9

Auditing and scrutiny

Auditing

144 (1) If a limited liability company is subject to audit obligations under the Danish Financial Statements Act or any other statute, or if the general meeting otherwise resolves that the company’s financial statements must be audited, the general meeting must elect one or more approved auditors, and alternate auditors if applicable. Such resolution may be passed by a simple majority of votes under section 105. The articles of association may also grant other parties the right to appoint one or more additional auditors.

(2) Any shareholder may request the Commerce and Companies Agency to appoint an additional approved auditor to participate in the audit together with the other auditor(s) until the next general meeting where

1. shareholders holding no less than one-tenth of the capital have voted in favour of an additional auditor at a general meeting whose agenda included the election of an auditor; and

2. the request is made no later than two weeks after the date of the general meeting.

(3) The Commerce and Companies Agency may appoint an auditor if a limited liability company which is subject to audit obligations has no statutory auditor and a member of management or a shareholder so requests. The appointment remains in force until a new auditor has been elected by the general meeting.

(4) Where an auditor is appointed under subsections (2) or (3), the appointment must be registered directly, without any application for registration. The Commerce and Companies Agency must determine the remuneration for the appointed auditor. Costs incidental to the statutory audit of the limited liability company’s annual report are payable out of public funds, but must be reimbursed by the company.

(5) If the auditor is to express an opinion about the affairs of a limited liability company, the auditor has the rights and obligations provided by this Act, unless a distinction has been made by the company between the auditors elected by the general meeting to audit the financial statements as provided in subsection (1) and other auditors.

145 Any subsidiary in a group, as defined by the Danish Financial Statements Act, in which the parent company is a state-owned public limited company or a business whose securities are admitted to trading on a regulated market, must, where possible, elect the same auditor as the auditor elected by the parent company in general meeting. Where this is not possible, the subsidiary must elect an auditor who is a partner of the auditor elected by the parent company in general meeting, unless this is also not possible.

146 (1) Auditors may be removed by the party that appointed them. An auditor elected to audit the company’s financial statements under section 144 may only be removed before his term of office expires if such removal is based on reasonable grounds.

(2) If an auditor elected by the general meeting (see section 144(1)) resigns or is removed from office, or if an auditor's appointment is otherwise terminated before the auditor’s term of office expires, the auditor must notify the Commerce and Companies Agency to such effect as soon as possible. The notice must be accompanied by an adequate account of the reason for the termination if this took place before expiry of the auditor’s term. In companies whose securities are admitted to trading on a regulated market, an auditor elected by the general meeting must also notify the market of his resignation or removal as soon as possible in accordance with the provisions of the Danish Securities Trading Act.

(3) If the auditor elected to audit the company’s financial statements as provided in section 144(1) resigns or is removed from office, or if the auditor's appointment is otherwise terminated (see subsection (1)), and no alternate auditor has been elected to replace the auditor, the central governing body must cause a new auditor to be elected as soon as possible in accordance with section 144(1). An extraordinary general meeting must be convened to elect a new auditor no later than two weeks after the company has been notified of the resignation or removal. However, in state-owned public limited companies and companies whose securities are admitted to trading on a regulated market, the general meeting must be convened no later than eight days after the company has been notified of the resignation or removal.

147 (1) The auditor elected to audit the company’s financial statements as provided in section 144(1) must comply with any audit requirements made by the general meeting in so far as such requirements are not contrary to statute, the company’s articles of association or generally accepted auditing standards.

(2) The auditor must also ensure that the company’s management complies with its obligations to draw up rules of procedure and prepare and keep books, records and minutes, and whether the rules on the submission and signing of audit records are complied with.

(3) If the auditor finds that the requirements referred to in subsection (1) are not fulfilled, the auditor must prepare a separate declaration to that effect to accompany the annual report at the general meeting.

148 Any changes with respect to an auditor elected under section 144 must be registered with the Commerce and Companies Agency (see section 10(2)). If an auditor is replaced before expiry of his term of office, the application for registration must be accompanied by an adequate account of the reason for the termination of the auditor’s office. The account must be made by the company’s central governing body.

149 The auditor may demand that members of the company’s management provide any information that is deemed to be of importance to the assessment of the company and, if the company is a parent company, its group (see section 7). This also applies to members of the management of a Danish company which is a subsidiary in a group as defined by the Danish Financial Statements Act.

Security

150 (1) Any shareholder may, at the annual general meeting or at a general meeting whose agenda includes such issues, submit a proposal for scrutiny of the company’s formation, of any specific matter relating to the administration of the company, or of certain financial statements. If the proposal is adopted by a simple majority of votes, the general meeting must elect one or more scrutinisers.

(2) If the proposal is not adopted, but shareholders representing 25% of the share capital vote in favour of the proposal, any shareholder may, no later than four weeks after the general meeting, request that scrutinisers be appointed by the bankruptcy court with jurisdiction over the place where the company’s registered office is situated. The bankruptcy court must provide the company’s management and any auditor elected by the general meeting to audit the company’s financial statements (see section 144(1)) and, if relevant, the person whose affairs are the subject-matter of the request, with the right to make a statement to the court before it makes its decision. The request will only be allowed if the bankruptcy court finds it to be based on reasonable grounds. The bankruptcy court determines the number of scrutinisers. The court’s decisions are subject to appeal.

(3) The provisions on independence in section 24 of the Danish Act on Registered and State-Authorised Public Accountants apply, with such changes as are necessary, to scrutinisers elected or appointed under subsections (1) and (2).

151 The scrutiniser may demand from the company’s management any information deemed to be of importance to the assessment of the company and, if the company is a parent company, its group as defined by the Danish Financial Statements Act. This also applies to the management of a Danish company that is a subsidiary in a group as defined by the Financial Statements Act.

152 (1) The scrutinisers must submit a written report to the general meeting and are entitled to receive remuneration from the company. If the scrutinisers have been appointed by the bankruptcy court, their remuneration will be determined by the court.

(2) No later than eight days before the date of any general meeting, the report prepared by the scrutinisers must be made available for inspection by the shareholders.

Part 10

Capital increases

153 (1) The capital of a limited liability company may be increased by

1. subscriptions for new shares;

2. conversion of the company's reserves into share capital by the issue of bonus shares; or

3. the issue of convertible debt instruments or warrants.

(2) No new shares may be subscribed for at a discount or subject to any reservations.

Resolution by the general meeting to increase the capital

154 (1) The general meeting may pass a resolution to increase the share capital in accordance with the rules in this Part of the Act.

(2) Any resolution under subsection (1) must be passed by the same majority required for amendments to the articles of association.

155 (1) The general meeting may authorise the central governing body to increase the capital by including a provision to this effect in the articles of association. The authorisation may be given for one or more periods of up to five years at a time.

(2) The general meeting may also authorise the central governing body to issue convertible debt instruments or warrants under section 169 by including a provision to this effect in the articles of association, provided that it also authorises the central governing body to implement the capital increase required for this purpose (see subsection (1)). The authorisation may be given for one or more periods of up to five years at a time.

(3) In connection with any authorisation under subsections (1) and (2), the articles of association must specify as follows:

1. for which type of capital increase, as set out in this Part of the Act, the authorisation is given;

2. the expiry date for the period specified in subsection (1) or (2), second sentence;

3. the maximum amount of the capital increase that may be implemented by the central governing body; and

4. provisions governing the matters referred to in section 158, paragraphs 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11.

(4) If the capital can be increased in whole or in part by contribution of assets other than cash, this must be stipulated in the articles of association. Also, any resolution made by the general meeting to depart from the existing shareholders' pre-emption rights under section 162 must be specified.

Procedural requirements for capital increases

156 (1) Any proposal to increase capital in a public limited company must be made available to the shareholders as prescribed in sections 98 and 99, and be submitted to the general meeting.

(2) If the annual report for a public limited company for the last financial year is not going to be under consideration by the same general meeting, the following documents must be submitted:

1. the latest annual report as adopted;

2. a report by the company's central governing body that includes information about events of major importance to the company's position that have occurred after presentation of the annual report, unless such information may be detrimental to the company because of special circumstances; and

3. a declaration by the company's auditor about the report made by the central governing body if the company's annual report is subject to audit obligations under the Danish Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

(3) The shareholders may deviate from subsections (1) and (2) by unanimous agreement.

Requirements for the notice

157 (1) In connection with an increase in capital for a public limited company, the notice of the general meeting must include information about the pre-emption rights of shareholders or others and instructions on how to exercise such rights.

(2) In case of deviation from the shareholders' pre-emption rights under section 162, the reason for the deviation and for the proposed subscription price must be stated in the notice.

(3) The shareholders may agree to deviate from subsections (1) and (2).

The substance of the resolution

158 The resolution to increase capital by a subscription for new shares must specify

1. the minimum and maximum amount by which the share capital may be increased;

2. the subscription price and the size or number of the shares;

3. when the new shares will confer on the holders a right to receive dividends and other rights in the limited liability company;

4. the estimated costs of the capital increase that are payable by the limited liability company;

5. the share class for the new shares if different classes exist or are contemplated;

6. the pre-emption rights of the shareholders or others and any restrictions on the new shareholders' pre-emption rights in the event of future increases (see section 162);

7. the time allowed for subscription and a time limit that allows shareholders at least two weeks from the date they are notified to exercise their pre-emption rights;

8. the last day of payment for the shares and, where the allotment is not left to the central governing body, the rules governing allotment in case of over subscription of any shares not subscribed for by the exercise of a preemption right;

9. any restrictions on the negotiability of the new shares or any obligation on the new shareholders to have their shares redeemed;

10. whether the new shares are negotiable instruments; and

11. whether the new shares will be registered shares or bearer shares.

159 (1) If the company's central governing body exercises any authority under section 155, the resolution must specify

1. the minimum and maximum amount by which the share capital may be increased;

2. the subscription price and the size or number of the shares;

3. when the new shares will confer on the holders a right to receive dividends;

4. the costs of the increase that are payable by the limited liability company;

5. whether the new shares may be paid for by contribution of assets other than cash (see section 160); or

6. whether the new shares may be paid for by conversion of debt (see section 161).

(2) Any resolution passed by the central governing body under subsection (1) is also subject to sections 163 and 164.

(3) The central governing body may make any amendments to the articles of association that are necessary because of the capital increase.

Non-cash contributions or contributions by conversion of debt

160 If new shares can be paid for by contribution of assets other than cash, this must be specified in the resolution on the increase, and a valuation report must be prepared in accordance with sections 36 and 37. If the central governing body issues a declaration under section 38(2), it is not required to obtain a valuation report in connection with the contribution of shares as set out in section 38(1). The central governing body must publish the declaration in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution on the contribution (see section 9(3)). The balance sheet to be prepared under section 36(3) must be prepared as a pre-acquisition balance sheet for the acquired business.

161 (1) If new shares can be paid for by conversion of debt, this must be specified in the resolution on the increase.

(2) The central governing body must explain the reason for and the point in time at which the debt was incurred, as well as the reasons for the proposed conversion.

(3) In public limited companies, the central governing body's explanation and any additional documents must be made available to the shareholders as provided in sections 98 and 99 and must be submitted to the general meeting.

(4) Subsection (2) may be departed from by agreement between the shareholders.

(5) The shareholders may agree to depart from the requirement in subsection (3).

Right to proportionate subscription

162 (1) In the event of a cash increase of the share capital, shareholders are entitled to subscribe for new shares in proportion to their existing shareholdings. It may be stipulated in the articles of association that the pre-emption rights are non-transferable to any third party.

(2) The general meeting may resolve, by the same majority of votes that is required to amend the articles of association (see section 106), to depart from the pre-emption rights in subsection (1) for the benefit of any other persons.

(3) If there are different share classes carrying different rights to vote and different rights to receive dividends or other distributions from the company, it may be stipulated in the articles of association that holders of the same class of shares have a priority right to subscribe for shares within their own share class. In this case, holders of shares of other classes may exercise their pre-emption rights under subsection (1) only after such subscription.

(4) The general meeting may resolve, by the same majority of votes that is required to amend the articles of association (see section 106), to depart from the pre-emption rights in subsections (1) and (3) for the benefit of employees in the company or in any of its subsidiaries. With the same majority of votes, the general meeting may fix a favourable price for the shares that are offered to the employees.

(5) However, a derogation from the shareholders' pre-emption rights which is greater than specified in the notice of the meeting can only be adopted by the general meeting with the consent of the shareholders whose rights are prejudiced.

(6) If the company has more than one class of shares, any resolution affecting the legal rights attaching to any of those classes will only be valid if it is adopted by shareholders attending the general meeting who hold at least two thirds of the shares in the share class whose rights will be prejudiced.

Subscription for new shares

163 (1) Any subscription for new shares must be in writing.

(2) In connection with the subscription, the articles of association and the documents specified in section 156 must be produced, unless it is resolved not to prepare such documents (see section 156(3)). If the capital subscription falls within sections 160 and 161, the documents referred to in these provisions must be produced upon subscription, unless it is resolved not to prepare such documents.

(3) The shareholders must be notified about the opportunity for subscription and the time allowed for exercising their pre-emption rights under the rules governing notices of general meetings. In public limited companies where all the shareholders are known to the company, the individual shareholders may instead be notified in writing.

**164 Any resolution to amend the articles of association that requires a capital increase will lapse if the prescribed minimum subscription amount for the capital increase has not been raised within the time period stipulated in the resolution. In this case, any amount paid in for the capital must be refunded as soon as possible.

Issue of bonus shares

165 (1) The limited liability company may issue bonus shares by transferring amounts to the share capital that have been recorded in the company's latest annual report, as adopted, as

1. retained earnings; or

2. reserves with the exception of any reserve under section 35 of the Danish Financial Statements Act (but see subsection (2)).

(2) For the issue of bonus shares, the company may also use

1. any profit realised in the current financial year and not distributed, spent or tied up; or

2. any distributable reserves accumulated or released in the current financial year.

(3) Any resolution passed under subsections (1) and (2) must specify the amount of the share capital increase and the size and number of the shares. Section 158(1), paragraphs 3, 6 and 9 to 11, apply with such changes as are necessary.

(4) The capital increase can only be implemented when the resolution has been registered.

(5) If an application for registration of the bonus share issue is not filed within twelve months after the resolution for the capital increase, the resolution and any resulting amendments to the articles of association will be void. 166(1) If more than three years have passed since a bonus share issue was registered and not all shares have been transferred to the transferees, the central governing body of the limited liability company may request such transferee(s) to collect the shares within six months by publishing a notice in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

(2) If the time limit provided by subsection (1) has expired without any transferee having responded to the request, the central governing body may dispose of the shares at the shareholder's expense through a securities dealer (see section 4(1) of the Danish Securities Trading Act). The company may deduct its expenses for the publication of the notice and disposal of the shares from the proceeds of the sale. Any sales proceeds not claimed within three years after the sale will accrue to the limited liability company.

Issue of convertible debt instruments and warrants

167 (1) The general meeting may resolve, by the same majority of votes that is required to amend the articles of association, to issue convertible debt instruments or warrants if it also resolves at the same time to increase the capital as required (see section 154).

(2) The resolution passed by the general meeting must specify the terms of the issue, including the maximum amount of the capital increase that may be subscribed on the basis of the security and the class to which the new shares will belong.

(3) A resolution passed by the general meeting under subsection (1) must also specify the rights that will accrue to the holder if he has not converted the debt instrument or exercised the warrant before the general meeting passes a resolution on one or more of the following transactions:

1. capital increase;

2. capital reduction;

3. issue of new warrants;

4. issue of new convertible debt instruments;

5. dissolution;

6. merger; or

7. division.

(4) The terms stipulated in any resolutions passed by the general meeting under subsections (2) and (3) must be communicated to the holders of convertible debt instruments or warrants.

168 The full text of any resolution passed by the general meeting under section 167 must be included in the articles of association. When the time allowed for subscription for the capital increase has expired, the company's central governing body may delete the provision.

169 (1) If authorised under section 155(2), the central governing body may resolve to issue convertible debt instruments or warrants.

(2) The resolution by the central governing body must specify the terms of the issue, including

1. the maximum amount of the capital increase that may be subscribed on the basis of the security;

2. the time allowed for subscription;

3. the class to which the new shares will belong;

4. the time allowed for subscription and a time limit that allows shareholders at least two weeks from the date they are notified to exercise their pre-emption rights;

5. the time when the rights start accruing;

6. the time for payment; and

7. the size or number of the shares and the subscription price.

(3) In its resolution under subsection (1), the central governing body must also specify the rights that will accrue to the holder if he has not converted the debt instrument or exercised the warrant before one of the following is implemented:

1. a capital increase;

2. a capital reduction;

3. the issue of new warrants;

4. the issue of new convertible debt instruments;

5. dissolution;

6. merger; or

7. division.

(4) The terms specified in any resolutions made by the central governing body under subsections (2) and (3) and the authorisation of the central governing body under section 155(2) must be communicated to holders of convertible debt instruments or warrants.

(5) Section 159 also applies to any resolution by the central governing body to increase the capital by conversion of convertible debt instruments or by the exercise of warrants.

170 The full text of any resolution made by the central governing body under section 169 must be included in the articles of association. The central governing body may make any amendments to the articles of association that are necessary because of the resolution.

171 If the amount paid for a debt instrument is less than the nominal amount of the share(s) into which the debt instrument may be converted in accordance with the loan terms, the residual amount must be paid in accordance with section 33 on partial payment of the capital, or be covered by the part of equity that is distributable for dividend purposes.

Terms governing registration of convertible debt instruments by a securities centre

172 The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe rules

1. governing the registration of convertible debt instruments by a securities centre;

2. providing for information to be delivered to a securities centre;

3. requiring the company to pay all expenses involved with the issue of convertible debt instruments through a securities centre and their registration and safe keeping, etc. by an account-holding bank; and

4. stipulating that section 63 is also to apply to convertible debt instruments.

Application for registration of a resolution to increase the capital

173 (1) Any resolution by the general meeting or the central governing body to increase the capital under this Part of the Act must be registered directly or an application for registration must be filed with the Commerce and Companies Agency within two weeks after payment for the shares has been made or the time limit for making such payment has expired.

(2) Any resolution by the general meeting or the central governing body to issue convertible debt instruments or warrants and to amend the articles of association accordingly under sections 168 and 170 must be registered or be the subject of an application for registration with the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than two weeks after the resolution is passed.

174 (1) Any registration or application for registration of a capital increase is subject to payment of the share capital that is required to be paid up under section 33 of this Act or the articles of association. Where a premium has been fixed, this must be paid up in full.

(2) The new shares will confer on the holders a right to receive dividends and other rights in the limited liability company from the date of registration of the capital increase, unless otherwise provided in the resolution for the increase. However, such rights accrue no later than twelve months after the date of registration.

(3) When registration is complete, the share capital is considered to have been increased by the total amount of the capital increase.

175 (1) No later than four weeks after the end of the financial year, the central governing body must register or apply to register the amount of any capital increase that occurred during the year if

1. shares are subscribed for on the basis of convertible debt instruments or warrants;

2. the time the resolution allows for subscription exceeds twelve months; and

3. the prescribed minimum amount of the capital increase has been subscribed and paid up (see section 33).

(2) The central governing body may make any amendments to the articles of association that are necessary because of the capital increase.

(3) If the registration or application for registration under subsection (1) has not reached the Commerce and Companies Agency within four weeks after expiry of the time allowed for subscription, or if registration is refused, any amount already paid must be refunded (see section 177(3)).

176 (1) As soon as possible after expiry of the time limit provided for conversion of convertible debt instruments or the exercise of warrants, the central governing body must register or apply for registration of the amount of convertible debt instruments or the number of warrants that have been converted into shares with the Commerce and Companies Agency. If the period allowed for exercise exceeds twelve months, the central governing body must make the registration or file the application for registration under the rules in section 175.

(2) The central governing body may make any amendments to the articles of association that are necessary because of the capital increase.

Revocation of a resolution to increase the capital

177 (1) Any resolution to increase the capital will lapse if registration is refused.

(2) A resolution will also lapse if it has not been registered or no application for registration has been filed within twelve months after the date of the resolution.

(3) If a resolution on the capital increase has not been registered, any amounts already paid must be refunded as soon as possible without deduction for costs, and any assets other than cash must be promptly returned.

Profit-sharing debt instruments

178 (1) The general meeting may resolve, by a simple majority of votes (see section 105), to raise loans against the issue of debt instruments carrying interest, the amount of which depends in whole or in part on the dividend paid on the limited liability company's shares, or on the profit for the year.

(2) The general meeting may also authorise the central governing body to raise loans under subsection (1). The authorisation may be given for one or more periods of up to five years at a time.

Part 11

Capital outflow

179 (1) The company’s assets may only be distributed to its shareholders

1. as dividends, based on the latest adopted financial statements (see section 180);

2. as extraordinary dividends (see sections 182 and 183);

3. in connection with capital reductions (see sections 185 to 193); or

4. in connection with dissolution of the company (see Part 14).

(2) The company’s central governing body is responsible for ensuring that distributions do not exceed a reasonable amount having regard to the company’s financial position and, for parent companies, the group’s financial position, and that no distribution is made to the detriment of the company or its creditors (see section 115, paragraph 5, and section 116, paragraph 5). The central governing body is also responsible for ensuring that reserves that cannot be distributed, as specified by statute or the company’s articles of association, are covered.

Distribution of ordinary dividend

180 (1) The general meeting must decide how to distribute, by dividend, the amount available for distribution as recorded in the financial statements. The general meeting cannot decide to distribute dividends of a higher amount than that proposed or accepted by the company’s central governing body.

(2) Dividends may only be distributed out of distributable reserves, which are amounts stated as retained earnings in the company’s latest adopted financial statements, and reserves that are distributable under statute or the company’s articles of association, less retained losses.

181 If non-cash assets are distributed as dividends, a valuation report must be prepared (see sections 36 and 37). The report must state that the amount of the dividend corresponds to at least the value of the non-cash assets distributed.

If the central governing body prepares and files a declaration under section 38(2), it has no obligation to obtain a valuation report in connection with the distribution of assets as set out in section 38(1). The central governing body must publish the declaration in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution on the distribution (see section 9(3)).

Distribution of extraordinary dividend

182 (1) The general meeting may decide to distribute extraordinary dividends after the company has presented at least one ordinary annual report. The general meeting cannot decide to distribute extraordinary dividends of a higher amount than that proposed or accepted by the company’s central governing body.

(2) The general meeting may authorise the central governing body to resolve to distribute extraordinary dividends after presentation of its first financial statements. The authority may be subject to financial restrictions and time constraints.

(3) Extraordinary dividends under subsections (1) and (2) may only be made up of the amounts referred to in section 180(2) and profit for the current financial year up to the date of the resolution on distribution if such profit has not been distributed, appropriated or tied up. Any distributable reserves created or released in the current financial year may also be distributed as extraordinary dividends.

183 (1) In public limited companies, any resolution on the distribution of extraordinary dividends must be accompanied by a balance sheet. The central governing body must assess whether the balance sheet from the latest annual report is adequate, or whether an interim balance sheet showing that sufficient funds are available for distribution has to be prepared (but see subsection (2)).

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), public limited companies that pass a resolution on the distribution of extraordinary dividends more than six months after the balance sheet date as set out in the company’s latest adopted annual report must always prepare an interim balance sheet showing that sufficient funds are available for distribution.

(3) In private limited companies, the central governing body must assess whether a resolution under subsection (1) is to be accompanied by a balance sheet. However, private limited companies that pass a resolution on the distribution of extraordinary dividends more than six months after the balance sheet date as set out in the company’s latest adopted annual report must always prepare an interim balance sheet showing that sufficient funds are available for distribution.

(4) If an interim balance sheet is prepared under subsections (1) to (3), that balance sheet must be audited by the company’s auditor if the company is subject to audit obligations. The interim balance sheet must be prepared in accordance with the rules on preparation of the limited liability company’s annual report. The date of the interim balance sheet may not be more than six months before the date of the resolution to distribute extraordinary dividends.

(5) If extraordinary dividends are distributed as non-cash dividends, a valuation report must be prepared (see section 36 and 37). The report must state that the amount of the dividend is equal to or more than the value of the non cash asset(s) distributed. If the central governing body prepares and files a declaration under section 38(2), it has no obligation to obtain a valuation report in connection with the distribution of assets as set out in section 38(1).

(6) The central governing body's resolution on the distribution of extraordinary dividends must be recorded in the company’s minute book. The interim balance sheet or the balance sheet for the latest financial year must be included in the board of directors' minute book as an appendix to the resolution.

Special disclosure requirements in connection with dividends

184 (1) A public limited company that is subject to the rules issued under Part 8 of the Danish Securities Trading Act may not distribute the company’s assets (see section 179) to the offeror or parties related to the offeror within the first 12 months after the acquisition of the company.

(2) However, notwithstanding subsection (1), distribution may be made if the offeror has disclosed information on the distribution and the detailed terms in the offer document prepared under the applicable rules of the Securities Trading Act. However, such information need not be given if the distribution does not exceed the overall improvement of the company’s financial position after the date of acquisition, and if the offeror could not have foreseen the distribution when preparing the offer document.

Resolutions on capital reductions

185 The provisions of section 156 on the procedure to be followed in connection with resolutions on capital increases apply, with such changes as are necessary, to resolutions on capital reductions in public limited companies.

186 Any resolution reducing the share capital must be passed by the general meeting by the same majority of votes that is required to amend the articles of association.

187 (1) In private limited companies, the general meeting may, by way of a provision in the articles of association, authorise the central governing body to reduce the capital to a specified amount. In that case, the time limit prescribed in section 191 runs from the date of the resolution to exercise the authority.

(2) The request to creditors referred to in section 192 must be published no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution by the central governing body to exercise the authority.

188 (1) Resolutions on capital reductions must specify the amount by which the share capital is to be reduced and for which of the following purposes that amount is to be used:

1. payment of losses;

2. distribution to shareholders; or

3. transfer to a special reserve fund.

(2) The resolution must state if a higher amount of the limited liability company’s assets is to be distributed than the amount of the reduction, specifying the premium, if applicable.

(3) Only capital reductions for the purpose of distribution or transfer to a special reserve fund as referred to in subsection (1), paragraphs 2 and 3, may be made at a discount.

189 (1) The general meeting of a limited liability company may only pass a resolution to use the capital reduction amount for distribution to the shareholders or for transfer to a special reserve fund (see section 188(1), paragraphs 2 and 3) if the central governing body submits or approves a resolution to such effect.

(2) Where the capital is reduced under subsection (1) at a price lower than the nominal value of the shares, the balance, up to the nominal value of the shares, must be transferred to the company’s distributable reserves.

190 (1) A valuation report (see sections 36 and 37) must be available at the date of the resolution that reduces the capital if the reduction is implemented for the purpose of distributing non-cash assets to the shareholders.

(2) The declaration in the valuation report referred to in section 36(1), paragraph 4, must state that at the date of the resolution, the capital reduction plus any premium corresponds to at least the estimated value of the non-cash asset(s) to be distributed. If the central governing body prepares and files a declaration under the provisions of section 38(2), it has no obligation to obtain a valuation report in connection with the distribution of assets as set out in section 38(1). The central governing body must publish the declaration in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution on the distribution (see section 9(3)).

Registration of capital reductions

191 Resolutions on capital reductions must be registered directly or an application for registration must be filed (see section 9) no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution. The resolution is invalid if no registration or application for registration is filed with the Commerce and Companies Agency within such time limit.

Request to creditors

192 (1) In connection with capital reductions, notice must be given to creditors of the limited liability company, requesting them to file their claims against the company within four weeks. The company’s central governing body must make the request for the purpose of publication in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system if the amount of the reduction is to be used, in whole or in part, for

1. distribution to the shareholders (see section 188(1), paragraph 2); or

2. transfer to a special reserve fund (see section 188(1), paragraph 3).

(2) No request to creditors needs to be made under subsection (1) if at the same time the capital is increased by the same nominal amount, plus a premium, as the amount of the reduction.

(3) Where capital reductions are for amortisation purposes (see section 74), the request to creditors under subsection (1) must be published at least four weeks before the date of the first capital reduction that is to be implemented in connection with amortisation under the articles of association.

Implementation of capital reductions

193 (1) Capital reductions are deemed to be finally implemented four weeks after the expiry of the time limit for the filing of claims against the limited liability company under section 192, unless an application to register that the resolution has been changed or withdrawn has been received by the Commerce and Companies Agency before the expiry of such time limit. The first sentence does not apply to capital reductions for amortisation purposes (see section 74).

(2) In accordance with section 9, the company’s central governing body must, before the expiry of the time limit prescribed in subsection (1), notify the Commerce and Companies Agency if the capital reduction cannot be implemented in accordance with the information published under section 192 or cannot justifiably be implemented (see section 115, paragraph 5, and section 116, paragraph 5). In addition, if any claims filed and payable have not been paid in full and adequate security has not been provided upon request for claims not past due or for disputed claims, the capital reduction cannot be implemented, and the central governing body must notify the Commerce and Companies Agency to such effect. Upon request from either party, the Commerce and Companies Agency must decide whether the security offered can be deemed adequate.

(3) If a private limited company has resolved to authorise its central governing body to reduce the capital by up to a certain amount (see section 187), the capital reduction will only be deemed to be final when it has been registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system that such authority has been exercised.

Repayment

194 (1) If any distribution has been made to the shareholders in contravention of the provisions of this Act, the shareholders must repay the amount with interest accruing annually at the rate fixed under section 5(1) and (2) of the Danish Act on Interest on Late Payment (lov om renter ved forsinket betaling m.v.) plus 2%. However, dividends must only be repaid if shareholders realised or ought to have realised that the distribution was illegal.

(2) If the amount cannot be collected, or if the shareholder has no obligation to repay the amount, the persons that participated in the resolution to make the payment or the implementation of the payment, or in the preparation or approval of the incorrect financial report will be liable under the general law of damages.

Charitable gifts

195 The general meeting may resolve to give gifts for charitable or similar purposes out of the limited liability company’s funds if this is deemed reasonable, having regard to the purpose of the gift, the company’s financial position and the circumstances in general. For the purposes referred to in the first sentence, the central governing body may use amounts that are insignificant taking into account the company’s financial position.

Part 12

A company's own shares

Acquisition of own shares in ownership or by way of security

196 Limited liability companies may only acquire their own shares if they are fully paid up. The shares may be acquired both in ownership and by way of security.

Acquisition of own shares for consideration

197 (1) If a limited liability company acquires its own shares for consideration, such consideration may only consist of the funds that may be distributed as extraordinary dividends under section 182(3). The company’s holding of its own shares must be disregarded when assessing whether the company satisfies the capital requirements specified in section 4.

(2) A company's holding of its own shares can include shares acquired by a third party in its own name, but at the company’s expense.

198 (1) An acquisition of a company's own shares for consideration cannot proceed without the central governing body of the limited liability company obtaining authority from the general meeting (but see section 199).

(2) Such authority may only be given for a specified time, which may not exceed five years.

(3) The authority must specify

1. the maximum permitted value of the company's own shares; and

2. the minimum and maximum amount that may be paid by the company as consideration for the shares.

199 (1) Where it is necessary in order to avoid significant and imminent detriment to the limited liability company, the central governing body may acquire the company's own shares on behalf of the company for consideration under sections 196 to 198, without authority from the general meeting.

(2) If the limited liability company has acquired its own shares under subsection (1), the central governing body must notify the next general meeting of

1. the reason for and the purpose of the acquisition;

2. the number and value of the shares acquired;

3. the proportion of the share capital represented by the acquired shares; and

4. the consideration provided for the acquired shares.

200 Notwithstanding sections 196 to 198, limited liability companies may, directly or indirectly, acquire their own shares

1. in connection with a reduction of the share capital under Part 11;

2. in connection with a transfer of assets by merger, division or other universal succession;

3. in satisfaction of a statutory takeover obligation of the company;

4. in connection with the purchase of fully paid-up shares in a forced sale for the satisfaction of a claim held by the company.

Subsidiaries’ acquisition of shares in parent companies

201 Sections 196 to 200 apply, with such changes as are necessary, to a subsidiary’s acquisition of shares in its parent company in ownership or by way of security.

Disposal of acquired shares

202 (1) Shares acquired without consideration in accordance with section 196 and shares acquired in accordance with section 200, paragraphs 2 to 4, must be disposed of as soon as possible without detriment to the limited liability company (but see subsection (2)).

(2) The shares must be disposed of no later than three years after the acquisition, unless the value of the limited liability company’s and its subsidiaries’ aggregate shareholding in the company does not exceed the company’s distributable reserves.

203 (1) Shares acquired in ownership in contravention of sections 196 to 201 must be disposed of as soon as possible and no later than six months after the acquisition.

(2) If shares have been acquired by way of security in contravention of sections 196 to 201, the security must be released as soon as possible and no later than six months after the acquisition.

204 If any shares have not been duly disposed of as provided by sections 202 and 203, the central governing body of the limited liability company must cause the share capital to be reduced by the value of such shares (see Part 11).

Subscription for own shares

205 (1) Limited liability companies may not subscribe for their own shares.

(2) Shares that are subscribed for by a third party in its own name, but at the company’s expense, are deemed to be subscribed for at the third party’s own expense.

(3) Shares subscribed for in the company’s name in contravention of subsection (1) are deemed to be subscribed for by the promoters or, in case of a capital increase, by the members of the company’s management at their own expense, and they will be jointly and severally liable for the purchase price. However, this does not apply to promoters or members of the company’s management who can establish that they neither realised nor ought to have realised that the subscription for the shares was illegal.

(4) Subsection (1) applies, with such changes as are necessary, to a company’s subscription for shares in its parent company. The shares in the parent company will be deemed to be subscribed for by the management of the subsidiary (see subsection (3)).

Part 13

Financial assistance using the limited liability company's own funds

Financing of purchase of own shares

206 (1) A limited liability company may not, directly nor indirectly, advance funds, make loans or provide security for a third party's acquisition of the limited liability company's shares or shares in its parent company (but see subsection (2) and sections 213 and 214).

(2) However, if the requirements in subsection (3) and sections 207 to 209 on approval by the general meeting, reasonableness of the resolution, report by the central governing body and arm's length terms are satisfied, a limited liability company may, directly or indirectly, advance funds, make loans or provide security with a view to a third party's acquisition of the company's shares or shares in its parent company.

(3) The limited liability company's central governing body must ensure that any third party receiving financial assistance is credit rated (see subsection (2)).

207 (1) Grants of financial assistance under section 206(2) are subject to approval by the general meeting. For the purpose of a resolution by the general meeting, the company's central governing body must present a written report to the general meeting, including information about

1. the reason for the proposed financial assistance;

2. the company's interest in entering into the transaction;

3. the conditions on which the transaction is entered into;

4. the consequences of the transaction for the company's liquidity and solvency; and

5. the price to be paid by the third party for the shares.

(2) The general meeting must pass the resolution required to approve the financial assistance under subsection (1) by the same majority of votes that is required to amend the articles of association (see section 106).

(3) The report to be presented under subsection (1) must be published in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system or be received by the Agency for the purpose of publication under section 9 within two weeks after the date of approval by the general meeting.

208 The total financial assistance granted by the limited liability company to third parties under section 206(2) may at no time exceed what is reasonable having regard to the company's financial position. If the company is a parent company within the meaning of sections 6 and 7, the aggregate financial assistance may not exceed what is reasonable having regard to the group's financial position. For this purpose, the limited liability company may only use funds that can be distributed as dividends (see section 180, subsection (2)).

209 Where a third party acquires shares in the company with the financial assistance of a limited liability company (see section 206, subsection (2)), such assistance must be granted at arm's length. The same applies if a third party subscribes for shares under section 162 in connection with an increase in the subscribed capital.

Financial assistance to parent companies, shareholders, members of management and others

210 (1) A limited liability company cannot, directly or indirectly, advance funds to, make loans to or provide security for its shareholders or members of the management except as provided in sections 211 to 214. The same applies in relation to shareholders or members of management in the company's parent company or businesses other than parent companies that control the company. The first sentence also applies to persons who, by marriage or lineal consanguinity, are related to a person falling within the first or second sentence or who have other close affiliations to such person.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), a limited liability company may grant the financial assistance referred to in subsection (1) for the purpose of financing any purchase of its own shares under the rules in sections 206 to 209.

211 (1) A limited liability company may, directly or indirectly, advance funds to, make loans to or provide security for the obligations of Danish and certain foreign parent companies.

(2) The Commerce and Companies Agency prescribes more detailed rules specifying which foreign parent companies are subject to subsection (1).

212 Notwithstanding section 210, a limited liability company may, directly or indirectly, advance funds to, make loans to or provide security for the persons specified in section 210 for the purpose of usual business transactions.

Exception for banks, etc.

213 Sections 206 and 210 do not apply to banks or to mortgage loans granted by mortgage credit institutions.

Exception for employees

214 (1) Sections 206 and 210 do not apply to transactions for the acquisition of shares from, or the transfer of shares to, employees of the company or any subsidiary.

(2) Minutes of meetings held by the central governing body must include a note on any transaction falling within subsection (1).

(3) Transactions falling within subsection (1) may only be entered into using funds that can be distributed as dividends under section 180.

Repayment

215 (1) If a limited liability company has granted financial assistance in contravention of sections 206 and 210, the amount must be returned to the company together with interest that accrues annually at the rate specified in section 5(1) and (2) of the Danish Interest Rates Act (renteloven) with the addition of 2%, unless a higher rate of interest is agreed.

(2) Where repayment is not possible, or where agreements for other financial assistance cannot be terminated, the persons who have agreed to or continued any transactions in contravention of sections 206 and 210 will be liable for any loss suffered by the limited liability company.

(3) Any provision of security in contravention of sections 206 and 210 is binding on the company if the contracting party did not know that the security had been provided in contravention of these provisions.

Part 14

Dissolution of limited liability companies

Dissolution by declaration

216 (1) Limited liability companies that have paid all creditors may be dissolved by the company’s shareholders making a declaration to the Commerce and Companies Agency that all debts, whether due or not, have been paid and that it has been resolved to dissolve the company. The shareholders’ names and addresses must be set out in the declaration.

(2) The Commerce and Companies Agency may only register the dissolution if the declaration under subsection (1) is received by the Agency no later than two weeks after the date it was signed, and it is accompanied by a declaration from the Danish tax authorities that there is no claim for direct taxes or indirect taxes against the limited liability company.

(3) The company is dissolved when it has been removed from the Commerce and Companies Agency’s register of active companies.

(4) The shareholders have personal, joint and several, and unlimited liability for the company's debts existing at the date that the declaration was made, whether due or not due, or disputed. Any excess must be distributed to the shareholders.

Resolution to enter into liquidation

217 (1) Unless otherwise provided by statute, any resolution voluntarily dissolving a limited liability company by liquidation must be passed by the general meeting.

(2) The resolution must be passed by the same majority of votes as that required to amend the articles of association (see section 106). Where dissolution is prescribed by statute, by the limited liability company's articles of association, or by the Commerce and Companies Agency under this Act, the resolution must be passed by a simple majority of votes (see section 105).

Election of liquidator

218 (1) The general meeting elects one or more liquidators to liquidate the company. In the period from the date of the resolution on voluntary dissolution (see section 217(1)) up to the date of election of a liquidator, section 229(1) applies, with such changes as are necessary, to any transactions made by management.

(2) Shareholders holding at least 25% of the share capital are entitled to elect a liquidator at the general meeting who will liquidate the company together with other liquidators elected by the general meeting.

219 (1) One or more liquidators will replace management. The provisions of this Act on company management also apply, with such changes as are necessary, to one or more liquidators.

(2) Liquidators may be removed at any time by the governing body of the company or the authority that has elected the liquidator.

(3) The provisions of this Act and the Danish Financial Statements Act on financial reporting, auditing, general meetings, and the submission of annual reports to the Commerce and Companies Agency apply, with such changes as are necessary, to companies in liquidation, subject to the modifications provided by this Part of the Act.

Application for registration of liquidation

220 (1) The liquidator must ensure that any application for registration of a resolution whereby the company enters into liquidation reaches the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution.

Notice of the resolution must be sent to all known creditors at the same time as the application for registration is sent to the Commerce and Companies Agency.

(2) A company that has entered into liquidation must keep its name with "i likvidation" (in English, in liquidation) added to it. Section 228(1) on registration applies.

(3) When a limited liability company has resolved to enter into liquidation, no registrations may be made with respect to the company, other than changes with respect to any auditor appointed by the bankruptcy court to audit the annual report and capital increases.

Request to creditors

221 (1) Upon registration and publication in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system under section 220(1), the company’s creditors are requested to file their proofs of claim with the liquidator within three months. At the time of applying for registration of the resolution on liquidation under section 220(1), the liquidator must notify all the company’s known creditors of the resolution.

(2) The liquidator may not close and dissolve the estate until expiry of the three-month period prescribed in subsection (1).

(3) If a claim is not admitted as proved by a creditor, the creditor must be notified to such effect by registered post or by any other means of communication providing the same degree of proof of receipt. The creditor must be notified that if he wishes to contest the decision not to admit his claim, the matter must be brought before the bankruptcy court no later than four weeks after dispatch of the letter or other communication.

(4) Claims filed after the estate has been closed and dissolved must be paid out of funds not yet distributed to the shareholders.

Distribution of dividends and liquidation proceeds

222 (1) The shareholders may agree to distribute dividends in a company in liquidation based on the latest adopted annual report.

(2) Dividend distributions under subsection (1) must be made in accordance with the general rules on dividends and extraordinary dividends in sections 180 to 183 and 194.

223 (1) Liquidation proceeds may not be distributed to shareholders until the time limit stipulated in the request to creditors referred to in section 221(1) has expired and all debt to known creditors has been paid (but see section 224(3)).

(2) If adequate security is provided, an interim distribution may be made before the liquidation is complete where the time limit for claims (see section 221(1)) has expired and creditor claims, if any, have been paid. Shareholders can be requested to repay liquidation proceeds distributed as an interim distribution under section 194.

224 (1) When the liquidation proceeds have been distributed, administration of the estate is concluded, and the general meeting may pass a resolution on final liquidation. Administration of the estate may not be concluded until any disputes under section 221(3) have been settled.

(2) The liquidators' application for registration of the final liquidation accounts must reach the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than two weeks after the accounts have been approved by the shareholders. The liquidation accounts must be annexed to the application for registration. The liquidation accounts must be audited if the company is subject to audit obligations under the Danish Financial Statements Act or any other statute. The Commerce and Companies

Agency will then remove the company from the register.

Compulsory dissolution

225 (1) The Commerce and Companies Agency may request the bankruptcy court to dissolve a limited liability company, if necessary under section 226, where

1. the Agency has not duly received the company’s audited annual report prepared in accordance with the Danish Financial Statements Act;

2. the company does not have the management or registered office prescribed by this Act or the company’s articles of association;

3. the company has failed to register an auditor for the company despite having audit obligations under the Financial Statements Act or any other statute;

4. the company has failed to register an auditor for the company despite the general meeting having resolved that the company’s annual report must be audited; or

5. the company’s management has failed to respond to claims for called-up share capital that the company has been proven to be unable to satisfy.

(2) The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe a time limit within which the limited liability company must remedy a defect under subsection (1). If the defect is not remedied on or before expiry of the time limit prescribed by the Agency, the Agency may decide that the company must be compulsorily dissolved.

226 (1) Where a limited liability company does not resolve to dissolve the company but is required to do so by statute or the company’s articles of association or by the Commerce and Companies Agency under the provisions of this Act (see section 217(2), second sentence), or if no liquidator is elected, the Commerce and Companies Agency may request the bankruptcy court with jurisdiction over the place where the company’s registered office is situated to dissolve the company.

(2) Subsection (1) applies, with such changes as are necessary, to compulsory dissolution of a company by court order under section 230.

227 (1) The Commerce and Companies Agency’s decision to request the bankruptcy court to dissolve a limited liability company must be published in the Agency's IT system.

(2) The limited liability company must keep its name with "under tvangsopløsning" (in English, in the process of compulsory dissolution) added to it.

(3) The bankruptcy court may appoint one or more liquidators. The bankruptcy court may also appoint an auditor. The provisions on liquidation in this Part apply to compulsory dissolution, always provided that the bankruptcy court or anyone authorised by the court will make decisions with respect to the company’s affairs. The costs of dissolution will be paid out of public funds, if necessary.

(4) Upon conclusion of administration of the estate, the bankruptcy court must notify the Commerce and Companies Agency to such effect, and the Agency must register the dissolution of the company in the Agency’s IT system.

228 (1) When the Commerce and Companies Agency has decided that a limited liability company must be compulsorily dissolved, no registrations may be made with respect to the company, other than changes with respect to any auditor appointed by the bankruptcy court to audit the annual report.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), registration may be made when a company applies for a discontinuation of proceedings at the bankruptcy court and resumption of the company’s activities under section 232.

229 (1) In the period from the date that the request for dissolution of the limited liability company is filed with the bankruptcy court up to the point when a liquidator has been appointed, management may carry out any necessary transactions that are not to the detriment of the company and its creditors.

(2) After appointment of a liquidator, the former members of management must provide the liquidator with any information that is required about the company’s activities up to the date of commencement of the liquidation procedure, including any information necessary for the liquidator’s assessment of existing and future claims. For groups, this obligation also applies in respect of the liquidator for the parent company.

(3) The liquidator may request the bankruptcy court to summon former members of the company’s management to a court meeting for the purpose of obtaining the information referred to in subsection (2).

Compulsory dissolution by the court

230 Where any shareholders in a limited liability company have wilfully contributed to passing a resolution by the general meeting that is in contravention of section 108, or have otherwise abused the influence that they have over the company or contributed to a contravention of this Act or the company’s articles of association, the court may, upon request from shareholders representing no less than one-tenth of the share capital, order that the company be dissolved if special grounds exist because of the duration of the abuse or other circumstances.

Resumption of business

231 (1) If no distribution has been made under section 223 or section 224(3), the shareholders may resolve to resume the company's business in accordance with section 106. In this connection, a management and an auditor, if applicable, must be elected and a declaration must be made by a valuation expert (see section 37) that the required capital is available. The share capital must be reduced to the amount available. If the required share capital (see section 33) is not available, the capital must be increased to at least the required amount.

(2) An application for registration of a resolution on resumption of business must be filed no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution. The application must be accompanied by a declaration from an approved auditor that no loans, etc. have been advanced to the shareholders in contravention of Part 13 of this Act.

(3) If a limited liability company is in the process of a compulsory dissolution, and the bankruptcy court has appointed a liquidator, the resumption of business is subject to the liquidator’s consent.

232 (1) Section 231 applies, with such changes as are necessary, where a company that is in the process of compulsory dissolution by order of the bankruptcy court applies for discontinuation of the proceedings and resumption of the company's activities.

(2) If the Commerce and Companies Agency has not received an application under subsection (1) within three months after the Agency has requested the bankruptcy court to dissolve the company, or if the company has been in compulsory dissolution within the past five years, the company's activities cannot be resumed.

Transition into bankruptcy

233 (1) Only the central governing body or, if the company is in liquidation, the liquidator, may file a petition in bankruptcy on behalf of the company.

(2) If the liquidators consider that the creditors will not be satisfied in full in connection with the liquidation, they must file a petition in bankruptcy.

(3) Where a company is under compulsory dissolution under section 226, the liquidator must file a petition in bankruptcy. If no liquidator has been appointed, the bankruptcy court may issue a bankruptcy order of its own accord.

(4) When a petition in bankruptcy has been filed, no registrations may be made with respect to the limited liability company, other than changes with respect to any auditor elected.

234 A company that has started bankruptcy proceedings must keep its name with "under konkurs" (in English, in bankruptcy) added to it. Section 228(1) also applies. The completion of the bankruptcy proceedings must be registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system, unless otherwise stipulated in the bankruptcy court’s notice of completion.

Restoration to the register

235 (1) The bankruptcy court may order that a limited liability company that has been deleted from the register of active companies in the Commerce and Companies Agency’s IT system following liquidation or compulsory dissolution (see sections 225 to 230) must be restored to the register if additional funds become available for distribution. The bankruptcy court may also order that the company be restored to the register if other circumstances provide grounds for restoration.

(2) The former liquidators will be responsible for administration of the estate. If this is not possible, the bankruptcy court or a liquidator appointed by the court will be responsible for administration of the estate.

(3) An application for restoration and its completion must be received by the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than two weeks after the date of the bankruptcy court’s order on restoration.

Part 15

Merger and division

Merger of limited liability companies

236 Under the provisions of this Part of the Act, a limited liability company may be dissolved without liquidation by transferring its assets and liabilities as a whole to another limited liability company in return for consideration provided to the shareholders of the non-surviving companies, a "merger by absorption". The same applies where two or more limited liability companies merge into a new limited liability company, a "merger by formation of a new company".

Merger plan

237 (1) The central governing bodies for the existing limited liability companies that participate in the merger must draw up and sign a joint merger plan (but see subsection (2)).

(2) If the merger only involves private limited companies, the shareholders may agree that no merger plan should be drawn up (but see section 248(2) and (3)).

(3) If the merger involves public limited companies, the merger plan must include information and provisions on

1. the names and any secondary names of the limited liability companies, including whether the name or secondary name of a non-surviving company is to be adopted as a secondary name for the surviving company;

2. the limited liability companies' registered offices;

3. the consideration offered for the shares in a non-surviving company;

4. the time from which any shares offered as consideration will confer on the holders a right to receive dividends;

5. the rights in the surviving company that accrue to any holders of shares and debt instruments carrying special rights in the non-surviving company;

6. any other measures taken for the benefit of holders of the shares and debt instruments referred to in paragraph 5;

7. registration of any shares offered as consideration and any delivery of share certificates;

8. the time from which the rights and obligations of the non-surviving company are considered to have been transferred for accounting purposes (see subsection (4));

9. any special benefits accruing to members of the limited liability companies' management; and

10. draft articles of association (see sections 28 and 29) if a new limited liability company is formed by the merger.

(4) Each of the existing limited liability companies must sign the merger plan by the end of the financial year in which the merger takes effect for accounting purposes (see subsection (3), paragraph 8). If this time limit is exceeded, notification that the Agency has received the merger plan cannot be published and, accordingly, the merger cannot be adopted.

Merger statement

238 (1) The central governing bodies for each of the existing limited liability companies participating in the merger must draw up a written statement that provides explanations and reasons for the merger plan. The statement must include information about how any consideration offered for shares in the non-surviving companies has been determined, including any particular difficulties in connection with such determination.

(2) In private limited companies, the shareholders may agree that no merger statement should be drawn up.

Interim balance sheet

239 (1) If the merger plan is signed more than six months after the end of the financial year to which the limited liability company's most recent annual report relates, an interim balance sheet must be prepared for the relevant limited liability company participating in the merger (but see subsection (2)). The date of the interim balance sheet, which must be prepared in accordance with the Danish Financial Statements Act, may not be more than three months before the date that the merger plan was signed. The interim balance sheet must be audited if the limited liability company is subject to audit obligations under the Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

(2) In private limited companies, the shareholders may agree that no interim balance sheet should be prepared, notwithstanding that the merger plan (if any) has been signed more than six months after the end of the financial year to which the most recent annual report of the company relates.

Valuation report on non-cash contributions

240 (1) If a capital increase is implemented in the surviving public limited company in connection with the merger, or if a new public limited company is formed by the merger, a report must be obtained from a valuation expert (but see subsection (2)) to be appointed under section 37(1). Section 37(2) and (3) also applies to the valuation experts' activities in relation to all of the merging limited liability companies.

(2) If the merger is a merger between public limited companies, no valuation report is required.

(3) If a valuation report is to be prepared in connection with a merger, it must include

1. a description of each contribution;

2. information on the valuation method applied;

3. a specification of the agreed consideration; and

4. a declaration that the value of the contribution as assessed in the report is not less than the agreed consideration, including any nominal value of the shares to be issued and any premium on them.

(4) The valuation report may not be drawn up more than three months before the date of the merger resolution, if any (see section 245). If this time limit is exceeded, the merger cannot be validly adopted.

Statement by valuation expert(s) on the merger plan

241 (1) For each of the limited liability companies participating in the merger, one or more independent valuation experts must make a written statement on the merger plan, including the consideration (see subsection (4)). The shareholders may decide, by unanimous agreement, not to obtain a statement by a valuation expert on the merger plan.

(2) The valuation experts must be appointed as specified in section 37(1). If the limited liability companies participating in the merger decide to use one or more joint valuation experts, the valuation experts must, at the companies' request, be appointed by the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where the registered office of the surviving limited liability company is situated.

(3) Section 37(2) and (3) also applies to the valuation experts' activities in relation to all the merging limited liability companies.

(4) The statement must include a declaration as to whether the consideration offered for the shares in the non surviving company is fair and reasonable. The statement must specify the method(s) used for determining the consideration and assess whether such methods are appropriate. The statement must also specify the values that result from each method and the relative importance that should be attached to each individual method in connection with the valuation. Where the valuation gives rise to particular difficulties, these should be included in the statement

Declaration by valuation expert(s) on the creditors' position

242 In addition to the statement referred to in section 241, the valuation experts must make a declaration as to whether the creditors of each limited liability company can be considered to be sufficiently protected after the merger. However, the shareholders may decide, by unanimous agreement, not to obtain a declaration by a valuation expert on the creditors' position.

Opportunity for creditors to file their claims

243 (1) If the valuation experts, with their declaration on the position of the creditors in the limited liability company (see section 242), conclude that the creditors will not be sufficiently protected after the merger, or if no declaration has been made by a valuation expert on the creditors' position, creditors whose claims arose prior to the Commerce and Companies Agency's publication under section 244 may file their claims up to four weeks after the date on which all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the merger passed the resolution on the merger. However, no claims for which adequate security has been provided may be filed.

(2) A request may be made for repayment of claims filed if they are due, and adequate security may be requested for claims filed that are not yet due.

(3) Unless otherwise established, security under subsection (2) is not required if repayment of the claims is secured by a statutory arrangement.

(4) If the limited liability company and any creditors who have filed their claims disagree as to whether security should be provided or whether the security offered is adequate, either party may, no later than two weeks after the claim is filed, bring the matter before the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where the limited liability company’s registered office is situated for a ruling on the issue.

(5) In the agreement on which the claim is based, creditors may not, with binding effect, waive their rights to demand security under subsection (2).

(6) If creditors have a right to file their claims, the implementation of the merger (see section 251) can only be registered upon expiry of the time allowed for filing such claims.

Filing of merger plan and declaration by valuation expert(s) on the creditors' position

244 (1) A copy of the merger plan (if any) must be received by the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than four weeks after it is signed (but see section 237(2)). If this time limit is exceeded, notification that the Agency has received the merger plan cannot be published and, accordingly, the merger cannot be adopted. If valuation experts have made a declaration on the creditors' position (see section 242), this declaration may also be submitted to the Commerce and Companies Agency in connection with filing of the merger plan.

(2) The Commerce and Companies Agency must publish notification in its IT system that it has received the documents referred to in subsection (1). If creditors have a right to file their claims (see section 243), this must be stated in the Agency's notification.

Resolution to implement a merger

245 (1) The resolution to implement a merger may be passed no earlier than four weeks after publication by the Commerce and Companies Agency of a notification that it has received the merger plan and a declaration by the valuation experts on the creditors' position (but see subsection (2)).

(2) If the merger only involves private limited companies, and if the valuation experts, with their declaration on the creditors' position under section 242, conclude that the creditors of each private limited company will be adequately secured after the merger, the shareholders may agree to disregard the time limit under subsection (1).

(3) If the non-surviving limited liability company has reached the end of its financial year without the general meeting having yet approved the annual report for the accounting period just ended, the general meeting must approve the annual report for this accounting period on or before the date of the resolution to implement the merger.

(4) Creditors must, upon request, be informed about the date on which it will be resolved to implement any merger.

(5) The merger must be implemented in accordance with the merger plan if such plan has been drawn up. If the merger is not adopted in accordance with any merger plan as published, the proposal is considered to have lapsed.

(6) If the following documents have been prepared, they must be made available for inspection by the shareholders no later than four weeks before the date on which the resolution to implement a merger is to be passed, unless the shareholders agree that the documents should not be made available to them before the general meeting:

1. The merger plan.

2. Annual reports for each existing limited liability company participating in the merger, as adopted for the last three financial years or any shorter period in which the company has existed.

3. A merger statement.

4. An interim balance sheet.

5. A valuation report on non-cash contributions.

6. The valuation experts' statements on the merger plan, including the consideration.

7. The valuation experts' declaration on the creditors' position.

(7) Shareholders must, upon request, be provided with access to the documents specified in subsection (6), free of charge.

246 (1) In a non-surviving limited liability company, the merger resolution must be passed by the general meeting (but see subsection (2) and section 252). If the company is in liquidation, a merger resolution may only be passed if the shareholders have not yet received any distributions, and if the general meeting resolves at the same time to suspend the liquidation process. Accordingly, section 231 on resumption of business will not apply.

(2) If a limited liability company is dissolved without liquidation by transferring its assets and liabilities as a whole to another limited liability company holding at least 90% of the share capital in the non-surviving limited liability company, the merger resolution may be passed by the central governing body of the non-surviving limited liability company (but see subsections (3) to (5)).

(3) The resolution under subsection (2) must, however, be passed by the general meeting if shareholders holding 5% of the share capital make a written request no later than two weeks after notification is published that the merger plan has been received. The resolution must also be passed by the general meeting of the non-surviving limited liability company if so requested by the shareholders with the right to demand a general meeting under the articles of association (see section 89).

(4) The central governing body must call a general meeting within two weeks of such request being made.

(5) If the resolution is to be passed by the general meeting of the non-surviving limited liability company, it must be passed by the majority required under section 106 and in accordance with any other provisions in the articles of association that apply to dissolutions or mergers.

247 (1) In the surviving limited liability company, the merger resolution must be passed by the central governing body, unless the general meeting is required to amend the articles of association for any purpose other than adopting a non-surviving limited liability company's name or secondary name as the surviving limited liability company's secondary name (but see subsections (2) to (4)).

(2) Shareholders holding 5% of the share capital, or shareholders with the right to demand a general meeting under the articles of association (see section 89), may also make a written request that the resolution be passed by the general meeting of the surviving limited liability company if the request is made no later than two weeks after the Commerce and Companies Agency publishes notification that it has received the merger plan.

(3) The central governing body must call a general meeting within two weeks of such request being made.

(4) If the resolution is to be passed by the general meeting of the surviving limited liability company, it must be passed by the majority required under section 106.

248 (1) The central governing bodies of the existing limited liability companies participating in the merger must inform any general meeting at which the resolution to implement the merger is to be passed about any significant events, including any significant changes in assets and liabilities, that have occurred between the date the merger plan was signed and the date of the general meeting.

(2) If the merger only involves private limited companies, and if the shareholders have agreed under section 237(2) that no merger plan should be drawn up, the following issues must be addressed in connection with the adoption of the merger:

1. the names and any secondary names of the private limited companies, including whether the name or secondary name of any non-surviving company is to be adopted as a secondary name of the surviving company;

2. the consideration offered for the shares in a non-surviving private limited company;

3. the time from which any shares offered as consideration will confer on the holders a right to receive dividends;

4. the time from which the rights and obligations of a non-surviving private limited company are considered to have been transferred for accounting purposes; and

5. articles of association (see sections 28 and 29) if a new private limited company is formed by the merger.

(3) If the merger only involves private limited companies, and if the shareholders have agreed under section 237(2) that no merger plan should be drawn up, identical resolutions must have been passed by all of the existing private limited companies participating in the merger with regard to the requirements in subsection (2). If this is not the case, the resolution to implement the merger is considered to have lapsed.

Opportunity to claim compensation

249 (1) The shareholders in the non-surviving limited liability company or companies may claim compensation from the limited liability company if the consideration offered for the shares in the non-surviving limited liability company or companies is not fair and reasonable, and if they have made a reservation to this effect at the general meeting at which the merger resolution was passed.

(2) Proceedings pursuant to subsection (1) must be commenced within two weeks after the merger is adopted by all of the merging limited liability companies.

(3) If a reservation is made under subsection (1), the merger resolution may only be registered after expiry of the time limit prescribed in subsection (2), unless the valuation experts, with their statement on the merger plan and the consideration (see section 241), conclude that the consideration offered for the shares in the non-surviving limited liability company or companies is fair and reasonable.

Legal effects of a merger

250 (1) The merger will be considered completed, and a non-surviving limited liability company will be considered dissolved and its rights and obligations will be considered to have been transferred as a whole to the surviving limited liability company when:

1. The resolution on the merger has been passed by all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the merger.

2. The claims filed by creditors under section 243 have been settled.

3. The shareholders' claims for compensation under section 249 have been settled, or adequate security has been provided for the claims. If valuation experts have drawn up a statement on the plan, including the consideration, and the statement is based on the assumption that the consideration is fair and reasonable, the valuation experts must also have declared that their statement on the consideration is not disputed to any significant degree. The valuation experts determine whether the security is adequate.

4. The requirements in subsection (5) concerning election of management and an auditor have been satisfied.

(2) When the requirements specified in subsection (1) are satisfied, the shareholders in the non-surviving limited liability company who receive shares as consideration become shareholders in the surviving limited liability company.

(3) Consideration cannot be offered for shares in a non-surviving limited liability company which are owned by the merging limited liability companies.

(4) Part 3 on formation will not apply if a merger results in a new limited liability company, unless stipulated in the provisions on mergers in sections 236 to 252. Part 10 will not apply to capital increases in the surviving limited liability company which are based on the assets and liabilities of a non-surviving limited liability company. Part 14 will not apply to a non-surviving limited liability company which is dissolved as part of a merger.

(5) If the merger results in a new limited liability company, and if the supreme governing body and an auditor, if applicable, are not elected immediately after the adoption of the merger by the general meeting, a general meeting for the election of management and an auditor, if applicable, must be held in the new limited liability company within two weeks. The general meeting must also decide whether the future financial statements of the limited liability company are to be audited if the company is not subject to audit obligations under the Danish Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

Application for registration of a merger

251 (1) For each limited liability company, the resolution adopting the merger must be registered with, or an application for registration must be submitted to (see section 9), the Commerce and Companies Agency. This must occur no later than two weeks after the resolution is passed by all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the merger. The surviving limited liability company may register or apply for registration of the merger on behalf of the limited liability companies. The registration or application for registration must be accompanied by the documents specified in section 245(6), paragraphs 3 to 7, if such documents have been prepared. Once adopted, the merger may only be registered when it has taken legal effect under section 250(1).

(2) The adopted merger must be registered directly or an application for registration must be filed under section 9 within the time allowed for filing an annual report for the period in which the merger takes legal effect (see section 237(3), paragraph 8), but not later than one year after the Agency has published notification of receipt of the merger plan under section 244. If one of these time limits is exceeded, the merger resolution will be invalid, and the merger plan prepared under section 237 will be considered to have lapsed.

(3) If a limited liability company resulting from a merger enters into an agreement before it is registered, and if the other party to the agreement is aware that the company is not registered, the other party may, unless otherwise agreed, terminate the agreement if no registration has been made with, or no application for registration has been received by, the Commerce and Companies Agency by the end of the period provided in subsection (2), or if registration is refused. If the other contracting party was unaware that the limited liability company was not registered, the other party may terminate the agreement as long as the company remains unregistered. Section 41(1), second sentence, applies with such changes as are necessary.

(4) Sections 42 to 44 apply, with such changes as are necessary, where a public limited company resulting from a merger acquires assets from a shareholder known to the company during the 24 months following registration of the company.

Vertical mergers between parent companies and wholly-owned subsidiaries

252 If a limited liability company is dissolved without liquidation by transferring its assets and liabilities as a whole to another limited liability company holding all of the shares in the non-surviving company, a "vertical merger", the merger resolution may be passed by the central governing body in the non-surviving limited liability company. Section 237(1), (2), (3), paragraphs 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8 to 10, and (4), sections 238 and 239, sections 242 and 245, section 246(1), second and third sentences, sections 247 and 248 and sections 250 and 251 also apply to vertical mergers.

Transfer of the assets and liabilities of a limited liability company to the Danish Government or a Danish municipality

253 If a limited liability company is dissolved without liquidation by transferring its assets and liabilities as a whole to the Danish Government or a Danish municipality, section 237(1) and (3), section 238, section 244(1), first and second sentences, and subsection (2), first sentence, section 245(1) and (3) to (6), sections 246 and 249, section 250(1), paragraph 1, and section 251(1) also apply.

Division of limited liability companies

254 (1) The general meeting of a limited liability company may pass a resolution to divide the limited liability company. In connection with the division, the assets and liabilities are transferred as a whole to two or more existing or newly established public or private limited companies in exchange for consideration to the shareholders in the transferor limited liability company. The general meeting may resolve, with the same majority of votes, to implement a division, whereby the limited liability company transfers part of its assets and liabilities to one or more existing or newly established limited liability companies. The transfer is not subject to the consent of the creditors.

(2) If any claim made by a creditor of a limited liability company participating in the division is not satisfied, each of the other participating limited liability companies are jointly and severally liable for obligations that existed at the date of publication of the division plan, subject to the maximum amount of the net value contributed or remaining in the individual limited liability company at that time.

(3) If one or more of the transferee limited liability companies participating in a division are the result of another division or merger which has not been implemented, this must be specified in the division plan (see section 255). Any division into new transferee limited liability companies resulting from another division or merger must be implemented immediately after the division or merger that results in the new limited liability companies (see section 269).

Division plan

255 (1) The central governing bodies of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division must draw up and sign a joint division plan (but see subsection (2)).

(2) If the division involves private limited companies only, the shareholders may agree that no division plan should be drawn up (but see section 266(2) and (3)).

(3) If the division involves public limited companies, the division plan must include information and provisions on

1. the names and any secondary names of the limited liability companies, including whether the name or secondary name of the transferor limited liability company is to be adopted as a secondary name of a transferee limited liability company;

2. the limited liability companies' registered offices;

3. an accurate description and distribution of the assets and liabilities that are to be transferred or to remain in each limited liability company participating in the division;

4. the consideration offered to the shareholders in the transferor limited liability company;

5. the distribution of the consideration, including shares in the transferee limited liability companies, to the shareholders in the transferor limited liability company and the distribution criterion;

6. the time from which any shares offered as consideration will confer on the holders a right to receive dividends;

7. the rights accruing in the transferee company to any holders of shares and debt instruments carrying special rights in the transferor company;

8. any other measures taken for the benefit of holders of shares and debt instruments referred to in paragraph 7;

9. registration of any shares offered as consideration and any delivery of share certificates;

10. the time from which the rights and obligations of the transferor company are considered to have been transferred for accounting purposes (see subsection (4));

11. any special benefits accruing to members of the limited liability companies' management; and

12. draft articles of association (see sections 28 and 29) if one or more new limited liability companies are formed by the division.

(4) For each of the existing limited liability companies, the division plan must be signed by the end of the financial year in which the division takes effect for accounting purposes (see subsection (3), paragraph 10). If this time limit is exceeded, notification that the Commerce and Companies Agency has received the division plan cannot be published and, accordingly, the division cannot be adopted.

(5) If not all of the assets are distributed by the division plan (see subsection (3), paragraph 3), and their distribution cannot be determined by the plan, such assets or the value they represent will be distributed among the participating limited liability companies in proportion to the net assets contributed or remaining in each limited liability company according to the division plan.

(6) If not all liabilities are distributed by the division plan (see subsection (3), paragraph 3), and their distribution cannot be determined by the plan, each of the participating limited liability companies are jointly and severally liable, subject to the maximum amount of the net value contributed or remaining in each limited liability company. Such liabilities are distributed among the participating limited liability companies in proportion to the net assets contributed or remaining in each limited liability company according to the division plan.

Division statement

256 The central governing bodies of each of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division must draw up a written statement that provides explanations and reasons for the division plan. The statement must include information about how the consideration for the shares in the transferor limited liability company was determined, including any particular difficulties in connection with such determination. The shareholders may, however, agree that no division statement should be prepared.

Interim balance sheet

257 (1) If the division plan is signed more than six months after the end of the financial year to which the limited liability company's most recent annual report relates, an interim balance sheet must be prepared for the relevant limited liability company participating in the division (but see subsection (2)). The date of the interim balance sheet, which must be prepared in accordance with the Danish Financial Statements Act, may not be more than three months before the date that the division plan was signed. The interim balance sheet must be audited if the limited liability company is subject to audit obligations under the Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

(2) The shareholders may agree that no interim balance sheet should be prepared, notwithstanding that the division plan (if any) has been signed more than six months after the end of the financial year to which the limited liability company's most recent annual report relates.

Valuation report on non-cash contributions

258 (1) If capital increases are implemented in one or more of the transferee public limited companies in connection with the division, or if one or more new public limited companies are formed by the division, a report must be obtained from a valuation expert (but see subsection (2)) to be appointed under section 37(1). Section 37(2) and (3) also applies to the valuation experts' activities in relation to all of the limited liability companies participating in the division.

(2) If a valuation report is to be prepared in connection with a division, it must include

1. a description of each contribution;

2. information on the valuation method applied;

3. a specification of the agreed consideration; and

4. a declaration that the value of the contribution as assessed in the report is not less than the agreed consideration, including any nominal value of the shares to be issued and any premium on them.

(3) The valuation report may not be drawn up more than three months before the date of the division resolution, if any (see section 263). If this time limit is exceeded, the division cannot be validly adopted.

Statement by valuation expert(s) on the division plan

259 (1) For each of the limited liability companies participating in the division, one or more independent valuation experts must make a written statement on the division plan, including the consideration (see subsection (4)). The shareholders may decide, by unanimous agreement, not to obtain a statement by a valuation expert on the division plan.

(2) The valuation experts must be appointed as specified in section 37(1). If the limited liability companies participating in the division decide to use one or more joint valuation experts, the valuation experts must, at the companies' request, be appointed by the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where the registered office of one of the transferee limited liability companies is situated.

(3) Section 37(2) and (3) also applies to the valuation experts' activities in relation to all of the limited liability companies participating in the division.

(4) The statement must include a declaration as to whether the consideration offered to the shareholders in the transferor limited liability company is fair and reasonable. The statement must specify the method(s) used for determining the consideration and assess whether such methods are appropriate. The statement must also specify the values that result from each method and the relative importance that should be attached to each individual method in connection with the valuation. Where the valuation gives rise to particular difficulties, these should be included in the statement.

Declaration by valuation expert(s) on the creditors' position

260 In addition to the statement referred to in section 259, the valuation experts must make a declaration as to whether the creditors of each limited liability company can be considered to be sufficiently protected after the division. However, the shareholders may decide, by unanimous agreement, not to obtain a declaration by a valuation expert on the creditors' position.

Opportunity for creditors to file their claims

261 (1) If the valuation experts, with their declaration on the position of the creditors in the limited liability company (see section 260), conclude that the creditors will not be sufficiently protected after the division, or if no declaration has been made by a valuation expert on the creditors' position, creditors whose claims arose prior to the Commerce and Companies Agency’s publication under section 262 may file their claims up to four weeks after the date on which all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division passed the resolution on the division. However, no claims for which adequate security has been provided may be filed.

(2) A request may be made for repayment of claims filed if they are due, and adequate security may be requested for claims filed that are not yet due.

(3) Unless otherwise established, security under subsection (2) is not required if repayment of the claims is secured by a statutory arrangement.

(4) If the limited liability company and any creditors who have filed their claims disagree as to whether security should be provided or whether the security offered is adequate, either party may, no later than two weeks after the claim is filed, bring the matter before the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where the limited liability company’s registered office is situated for a ruling on the issue.

(5) In the agreement on which the claim is based, creditors may not, with binding effect, waive their rights to demand security under subsection (2).

(6) If creditors have a right to file their claims, the implementation of the division (see section 269) can only be registered upon expiry of the time allowed in subsection (1) for filing such claims.

Filing of division plan and declaration by valuation expert(s) on the creditors' position

262 (1) A copy of the division plan (if any) must be received by the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than four weeks after it is signed (but see section 255(2)). If this time limit is exceeded, notification that the division plan has been received cannot be published and, accordingly, the division cannot be adopted. If valuation experts have made a declaration on the creditors' position (see section 255), this declaration may also be submitted to the Commerce and Companies Agency in connection with filing of the division plan.

(2) The Commerce and Companies Agency must publish notification in its IT system that it has received the documents referred to in subsection (1). If creditors have a right to file their claims (see section 261), this must be stated in the Agency’s notification.

Resolution to implement a division

263 (1) The resolution to implement a division may be passed no earlier than four weeks after publication by the Commerce and Companies Agency of a notification that it has received the division plan and a declaration by the valuation experts on the creditors' position (but see subsection (2)).

(2) If the division only involves private limited companies, and if the valuation experts, with their declaration on the creditors' position under section 261, conclude that the creditors of each private limited company will be adequately secured after the division, the shareholders may agree to disregard the time limit under subsection (1).

(3) If the transferor limited liability company is dissolved following the division, and if it has reached the end of its financial year without the general meeting having yet approved the annual report for the accounting period just ended, the general meeting must approve the annual report for this accounting period on or before the date of the resolution to implement the division.

(4) Creditors must, upon request, be informed about the date on which it will be resolved to implement any division.

(5) The division must be implemented in accordance with the division plan if such a plan has been drawn up. If the division is not adopted in accordance with any division plan as published, the proposal is considered to have lapsed.

(6) If the following documents have been prepared, they must be made available for inspection by the shareholders no later than four weeks before the date on which the resolution to implement a division is to be passed, unless the shareholders agree that the documents should not be made available to them before the general meeting:

1. The division plan.

2. Annual reports for each existing limited liability company that is participating in the division, as adopted for th last three financial years or any shorter period in which the company has existed.

3. A division statement.

4. An interim balance sheet.

5. A valuation report on non-cash contributions.

6. The valuation experts' statements on the division plan, including the consideration.

7. The valuation experts' declaration on the creditors' position.

(7) Shareholders must, upon request, be provided with access to the documents specified in subsection (6), free of charge.

264 In the transferor limited liability company, the division resolution must be passed by the general meeting with the majority required under sections 106 and 107 and in accordance with any additional rules on dissolution and division provided by the articles of association (but see section 270). If the company is in liquidation, a division resolution may only be passed if the shareholders have not yet received any distributions, and if the general meeting resolves at the same time to suspend the liquidation process. Accordingly, section 231 on resumption of business will not apply.

265 (1) In existing transferee limited liability companies, the division resolution must be passed by the central governing body, unless the general meeting is required to amend the articles of association for any purpose other than adopting the transferor limited liability company's name or secondary name as the transferee limited liability company's secondary name (but see subsection (2)).

(2) Shareholders holding 5% of the share capital, or shareholders with the right to demand a general meeting under the articles of association (see section 89), may also make a written request that the resolution be passed by the general meeting of the existing transferee limited liability companies if the request is made no later than two weeks after the Commerce and Companies Agency publishes notification that it has received the division plan.

(3) The central governing body must call a general meeting within two weeks of such request being made.

(4) If the resolution is to be passed by the general meeting of an existing transferee company, it must be passed by the majority required under section 106.

266 (1) The central governing bodies of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division must inform any general meeting at which the resolution to implement the division is to be passed about any significant events, including any significant changes in assets and liabilities, that have occurred between the date the division plan was signed and the date of the general meeting.

(2) If the division only involves private limited companies, and if the shareholders have agreed under section 255(2) that no division plan should be drawn up, the following issues must be addressed in connection with adoption of the division:

1. the names and any secondary names of the private limited companies, including whether the name or secondary name of the transferor company is to be adopted as a secondary name of a transferee company;

2. the consideration offered for the shares in the transferor company;

3. the time from which any shares offered as consideration will confer on the holders a right to receive dividends;

4. the time from which the rights and obligations of the transferor private limited company are considered to have been transferred for accounting purposes; and

5. articles of association (see sections 28 and 29) if a new private limited company is formed by the division.

(3) If the division only involves private limited companies, and if the shareholders have agreed under section 255(2) that no division plan should be drawn up, identical resolutions must have been passed by all of the existing private limited companies participating in the division in respect of the requirements in subsection (2). If this is not the case, the resolution to implement the division is considered to have lapsed.

Opportunity to claim compensation

267 (1) The shareholders in the transferor limited liability company may claim compensation from the limited liability company if the consideration offered for the shares in the transferor limited liability company is not fair and reasonable, and if they have made a reservation to this effect at the general meeting at which the resolution to implement the division was passed.

(2) Proceedings pursuant to subsection (1) must be commenced within two weeks after the division is adopted by all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division.

(3) If a reservation is made under subsection (1), the division resolution may only be registered after expiry of the time limit prescribed in subsection (2), unless the valuation experts, with their statement on the plan and the consideration (see section 241), conclude that the consideration offered for the shares in the transferor limited liability company is fair and reasonable.

Legal effects of a division

268 (1) The division will be considered completed, and all rights and obligations of the transferor limited liability company will be considered to have been transferred to the transferee limited liability companies when:

1. The resolution on the division has been passed by all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division.

2. The claims filed by creditors under section 261 have been settled.

3. The shareholders' claims for compensation under section 267 have been settled, or adequate security has been provided for the claims. If valuation experts have drawn up a statement on the plan, including the consideration, and the statement is based on the assumption that the consideration is fair and reasonable, the valuation experts must also have declared that their statement on the consideration is not disputed to any significant degree. The valuation experts determine whether the security is adequate.

4. The requirements in subsection (5) concerning election of management and an auditor have been satisfied.

(2) When the requirements specified in subsection (1) are satisfied, the shareholders in the transferor limited liability company who receive shares as consideration become shareholders in one or more of the transferee limited liability companies.

(3) Consideration cannot be offered for shares in the transferor company which are owned by the limited liability companies participating in the division.

(4) Part 3 on formation will not apply if a division results in a new limited liability company, unless otherwise provided by sections 254 to 270. Part 10 on capital increases will not apply to capital increases in the transferee limited liability companies effected by contributions of assets and liabilities from the transferor limited liability company. Part 11 on capital disposals and Part 14 on dissolution will not apply if, as a result of the division, a capital reduction is implemented in the transferor company, or this company is dissolved.

(5) If the division results in a new limited liability company, and if the supreme governing body and an auditor, if applicable, are not elected immediately after the adoption of the division by the general meeting, a general meeting for the election of management and an auditor, if applicable, must be held in the new limited liability company within two weeks. The general meeting must also resolve whether the future financial statements of the limited liability company are to be audited if the company is not subject to audit obligations under the Danish Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

Registration of implementation of a division

269 (1) The division resolution must, for each company, be registered directly, or an application for registration must be filed (see section 9), no later than two weeks after it is passed by all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division. Each of the transferee limited liability companies may register the division on behalf of the participating limited liability companies. The registration or application for registration must be accompanied by the documents specified in section 263(6), paragraphs 3 to 7. Once adopted, the division may only be registered when it has taken legal effect under section 268(1).

(2) The adopted division must be registered directly, or an application for registration must be filed (see section 9), on or before expiry of the time limit for filing of the annual report covering the period in which the division takes legal effect (see section 255(3), paragraph 10), but not later than one year after publication by the Agency of the notification that it has received the division plan under section 262. If any of these two time limits is exceeded, the resolution implementing the division will be invalid, and the division plan prepared under section 255 will be considered to have lapsed.

(3) If a limited liability company resulting from a division enters into an agreement before it is registered, and if the other party to the agreement is aware that the company is not registered, the other party may, unless otherwise agreed, terminate the agreement if no registration or application for registration has been received by the Commerce and Companies Agency by the end of the period provided in subsection (2), or if registration is refused. If the other contracting party was unaware that the limited liability company was not registered, the other party may terminate the agreement as long as the company remains unregistered. Section 41(1), second sentence, applies with such changes as are necessary.

(4) Sections 42 to 44 apply, with such changes as are necessary, where a public limited company resulting from a division acquires assets from a shareholder that is known to the company during the 24 months following registration of the company. Vertical divisions where the transferee companies hold all of the shares in the transferor company 270 Where all of the shares in the transferor limited liability company are held by the transferee limited liability companies, a "vertical division", the division resolution can be passed by the central governing body of the transferor company. Section 255(1), (2), (3), paragraphs 1 to 3, 7, 8 and 10 to 12, and (4), sections 256 to 263, section 264, second and third sentences, and sections 265, 266, 268 and 269 also apply to vertical divisions, with such changes as are necessary.

Part 16

Cross-border mergers and divisions

Cross-border mergers

271 Limited liability companies that are subject to this Act may participate in cross-border mergers in which the other participating companies are also limited liability companies governed by the laws of the EU or EEA Member States.

Merger plan

272 (1) The central governing bodies for the existing limited liability companies that participate in the merger must draw up and sign a joint merger plan, which must include information and provisions on

1. the corporate forms, names and registered offices of the participating limited liability companies and of the surviving company;

2. the consideration offered for the shares in the non-surviving limited liability company;

3. the distribution of the consideration, including shares in the surviving limited liability company, to the shareholders in the non-surviving limited liability companies, and the distribution criterion;

4. the likely impact of the cross-border merger on the number of employees in the participating limited liability companies;

5. the time from which the shares offered as consideration will confer on the holders a right to receive dividends, and a specification of any special conditions associated with such rights;

6. the time from which the rights and obligations of the non-surviving limited liability companies are considered to have been transferred for accounting purposes;

7. the rights accruing in the surviving limited liability company to any holders of shares carrying special rights and any holders of other securities or shares, or the actions proposed to be taken for the benefit of such persons;

8. any special benefits accruing to the valuation experts that make a statement on the merger plan (see section 276) and to the members of the limited liability companies' management;

9. the articles of association of the surviving limited liability company;

10. information about the procedures under sections 311 to 317 for involving employees in the determination of their rights to representation in the surviving limited liability company, if appropriate;

11. valuation of the assets and liabilities transferred to the surviving limited liability company; and

12. the dates of the merging limited liability companies' financial statements used to establish the conditions of the cross-border merger.

(2) For each of the existing limited liability companies, the merger plan must be signed by the end of the financial year in which the merger takes effect for accounting purposes (see subsection (1), paragraph 6). If this time limit is exceeded, notification that the Commerce and Companies Agency has received the merger plan cannot be published and, accordingly, the merger cannot be adopted.

Merger statement

273 The central governing bodies of each of the existing limited liability companies participating in the merger must draw up a written statement that provides explanations and reasons for the merger plan. The statement must include information about how the consideration offered for the shares in the non-surviving limited liability companies was determined, including any particular difficulties in connection with such determination. The statement must also include a description of the consequences of the cross-border merger for the shareholders, creditors and employees.

Interim balance sheet

274 (1) If the merger plan is signed more than six months after the end of the financial year to which the limited liability company's most recent annual report relates, an interim balance sheet must be prepared for the relevant limited liability company participating in the merger (but see subsection (2)). The date of the interim balance sheet, which must be prepared in accordance with the Danish Financial Statements Act, may not be more than three months before the date that the merger plan was signed. The interim balance sheet must be audited if the limited liability company is subject to audit obligations under the Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

(2) In private limited companies, the shareholders may agree that no interim balance sheet should be prepared, notwithstanding that the merger plan (if any) has been signed more than six months after the end of the financial year to which the company's most recent annual report relates.

Valuation report on non-cash contributions

275 (1) If a capital increase is implemented in the surviving public limited company in connection with the merger, or if a new public limited company is formed by the merger, a report must be obtained from a valuation expert to be appointed under section 37(1). Section 37(2) and (3) also applies to the valuation experts' activities in relation to all of the merging limited liability companies.

(2) If the merger is a merger between public limited companies, no valuation report is required.

(3) If a valuation report is to be prepared in connection with a merger, it must include

1. a description of each contribution;

2. information on the valuation method applied;

3. a specification of the agreed consideration; and

4. a declaration that the value of the contribution as assessed in the report is not less than the agreed consideration, including any nominal value of the shares to be issued and any premium on them.

(4) The valuation report may not be drawn up more than three months before the date of the merger resolution, if any (see section 280). If this time limit is exceeded, the merger cannot be validly adopted.

Statement by valuation expert(s) on the merger plan

276 (1) For each of the limited liability companies participating in the merger, one or more independent valuation experts must make a written statement on the merger plan, including the consideration (see subsection (4)). The shareholders may decide, by unanimous agreement, not to obtain a statement by a valuation expert on the merger plan.

(2) The valuation experts must be appointed as specified in section 37(1). If the limited liability companies participating in the merger decide to use one or more joint valuation experts, the valuation experts must, at the companies' request, be appointed by the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where the registered office of the surviving limited liability company is situated.

(3) Section 37(2) and (3) also applies to the valuation experts' activities in relation to all the merging limited liability companies.

(4) The statement must include a declaration as to whether the consideration offered for the shares in the non surviving limited liability company is fair and reasonable. The statement must specify the method(s) used for determining the consideration and assess whether such methods are appropriate. The statement must also specify the values that result from each method and the relative importance that should be attached to each individual method in connection with the valuation. Where the valuation gives rise to particular difficulties, these should be included in the statement.

Declaration by valuation expert(s) on the creditors' position

277 In addition to the statement referred to in section 276, the valuation experts must make a declaration as to whether the creditors of each limited liability company can be considered to be sufficiently protected after the merger. However, the shareholders may decide, by unanimous agreement, not to obtain a declaration by a valuation expert on the creditors' position.

Opportunity for creditors to file their claims

278 (1) If the valuation experts, with their declaration on the position of the creditors in the limited liability company (see section 277), conclude that the creditors will not be sufficiently protected after the merger, or if no declaration has been made by a valuation expert on the creditors' position, creditors whose claims arose prior to the Commerce and Companies Agency's publication under section 279 may file their claims up to four weeks after the date that all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the merger passed the resolution on the merger. However, no claims for which adequate security has been provided may be filed.

(2) A request may be made for repayment of claims filed if they are due, and adequate security may be requested for claims filed that are not yet due.

(3) Unless otherwise established, security under subsection (2) is not required if repayment of the claims is secured by a statutory arrangement.

(4) If the limited liability company and any creditors who have filed their claims disagree as to whether security should be provided or whether the security offered is adequate, either party may, no later than two weeks after the claim is filed, bring the matter before the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where the limited liability company’s registered office is situated for a ruling on the issue.

(5) In the agreement on which the claim is based, creditors may not, with binding effect, waive their rights to demand security under subsection (2).

(6) If creditors have a right to file their claims, the certificate on the merger resolution (see section 289) can only be issued upon expiry of the time allowed in subsection (1) for filing such claims.

Filing of merger plan and declaration by valuation expert(s) on the creditors' position

279 (1) A copy of the merger plan must be received by the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than four weeks after it is signed. If this time limit is exceeded, notification that the merger plan has been received cannot be published and, accordingly, the merger cannot be adopted. If valuation experts have made a declaration on the creditors' position (see section 278), this declaration may also be submitted to the Commerce and Companies Agency in connection with filing of the merger plan.

(2) The Commerce and Companies Agency must publish notification in its IT system that it has received the documents referred to in subsection (1). If creditors have a right to file their claims (see section 278), this must be stated in the Agency’s notification.

Resolution to implement a cross-border merger

280 (1) The resolution to implement a merger may be passed no earlier than four weeks after publication by the Commerce and Companies Agency of a notification that it has received the merger plan and a declaration by the valuation experts on the creditors' position.

(2) If the non-surviving limited liability company has reached the end of its financial year without the general meeting having yet approved the annual report for the accounting period just ended, the general meeting must approve the annual report for this accounting period on or before the date of the resolution to implement the merger.

(3) Creditors must, upon request, be informed about the date on which it will be resolved to implement any merger.

(4) The merger must be implemented in accordance with the merger plan. If the merger is not adopted in accordance with the merger plan as published, the proposal is considered to have lapsed.

(5) If the following documents have been prepared, they must be made available for inspection by the shareholders no later than four weeks before the date on which the resolution to implement a merger is to be passed, unless the shareholders agree that the documents should not be made available to them before the general meeting (but see subsection (6)):

1. The merger plan.

2. Annual reports for each existing limited liability company participating in the merger, as adopted for the last three financial years or any shorter period in which the company has existed.

3. A merger statement.

4. An interim balance sheet.

5. A valuation report on non-cash contributions.

6. The valuation experts' statements on the merger plan, including the consideration.

7. The valuation experts' declaration on the position of the creditors.

(6) Shareholders must, upon request, be provided with access to the documents specified in subsection (5), free of charge.

(7) In connection with a cross-border merger, the merger statement (see section 273) must also be made available at the limited liability company's office for inspection by the employee representatives or, in the absence of such employee representatives in the relevant limited liability company, by the employees in general no later than four weeks before the date on which the merger resolution is to be passed.

281 In a non-surviving limited liability company, the merger resolution must be passed by the general meeting with the majority required under section 106 and in accordance with any additional rules on dissolution and merger provided by the articles of association (but see section 290). If the company is in liquidation, a merger resolution may only be passed if the shareholders have not yet received any distributions, and if the general meeting resolves at the same time to suspend the liquidation process. Accordingly, section 231 on resumption of business will not apply.

282 (1) In the surviving limited liability company, the merger resolution must be passed by the central governing body, unless the general meeting is required to amend the articles of association for any purpose other than adopting a non-surviving limited liability company's name or secondary name as the surviving limited liability company's secondary name (but see subsections (2) to (4)).

(2) Shareholders holding 5% of the share capital, or shareholders with the right to demand a general meeting under the articles of association (see section 89), may also make a written request that the resolution be passed by the general meeting of the surviving limited liability company if the request is made no later than two weeks after the Commerce and Companies Agency publishes notification that it has received the merger plan.

(3) The central governing body must call a general meeting within two weeks of such request being made.

(4) If the resolution is to be passed by the general meeting of the surviving limited liability company, it must be passed by the majority required under section 106.

283 The central governing bodies of the existing limited liability companies participating in the merger must inform any general meeting at which a resolution to implement a merger is to be passed about any significant events, including any significant changes in assets and liabilities, that have occurred between the date the merger plan was signed and the date of the general meeting.

284 If the resolution to implement a cross-border merger is to be passed by the general meeting, the general meeting may decide that that resolution is subject to its subsequent approval of the guidelines on employee participation.

Opportunity to claim compensation

285 (1) The shareholders in the non-surviving limited liability company or companies may claim compensation from the limited liability company if the consideration offered for the shares in the non-surviving limited liability company or companies is not fair and reasonable, and if they have made a reservation to this effect at the general meeting at which the merger resolution was passed.

(2) Proceedings pursuant to subsection (1) must be commenced within two weeks after the merger is adopted by all of the limited liability companies participating in the merger (3) If a reservation is made under subsection (1), the merger resolution may only be registered after expiry of the two-week period prescribed in subsection (2), unless the valuation experts, with their statement on the plan (see section 276), conclude that the consideration offered for the shares in the non-surviving limited liability company or companies is fair and reasonable.

Opportunity to claim redemption

286 (1) In connection with a cross-border merger, the shareholders in the non-surviving limited liability companies who opposed the merger at the general meeting may also demand redemption of their shares by the company by making a written request to this effect no later than four weeks after the date of the general meeting. Section 109 applies with such changes as are necessary.

(2) The certificate to be issued under section 289 may only be issued when adequate security has been provided for the value of the shares. Experts appointed by the court with jurisdiction over the place where the registered office of the limited liability company is situated determine whether the security is adequate. If the experts' finding is challenged before the court, this will not delay the Commerce and Companies Agency in issuing the certificate, unless otherwise determined by the court.

Formation, capital increases and dissolution in connection with a cross-border merger

287 (1) Consideration cannot be offered for shares in a non-surviving limited liability company which are owned by the merging limited liability companies.

(2) Part 3 on formation will not apply if a merger results in a new limited liability company, unless stipulated in the provisions on cross-border mergers in sections 271 to 290. Part 10 on capital increases will not apply to capital increases in the surviving limited liability company which are based on the assets and liabilities of a non-surviving limited liability company. Part 14 on dissolution will not apply to a non-surviving limited liability company which is dissolved as part of a merger.

(3) If the merger results in the formation of a new limited liability company which is subject to Danish law, and if the supreme governing body and an auditor, if applicable, are not elected immediately after the adoption of the merger by the general meeting, a general meeting for the election of management and an auditor, if applicable, must be held in the new limited liability company within two weeks. The general meeting must also decide whether the future financial statements of the limited liability company are to be audited if the company is not subject to audit obligations under the Danish Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

Application for registration of a cross-border merger

288 (1) For each limited liability company, an application for registration of the merger resolution must be received by the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than two weeks after the resolution is passed by all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the merger. The surviving company may apply for registration of the merger on behalf of the limited liability companies. The application for registration must be accompanied by the documents specified in section 280, subsection (5), paragraphs 3 to 7, if such documents have been prepared.

(2) The application for registration of the merger must be received by the Commerce and Companies Agency within the time limit allowed for filing an annual report for the period in which the merger takes effect for accounting purposes (see section 272(1), paragraph 6), but not later than one year after publication by the Agency of notification that it has received the merger plan under section 279. If one of these time limits is exceeded, the resolution implementing the merger will be invalid, and the merger plan prepared under section 272 will be considered to have lapsed.

(3) If a limited liability company resulting from a merger enters into an agreement before it is registered, and if the other party to the agreement is aware that the company is not registered, the other party may, unless otherwise agreed, terminate the agreement if no application for registration has been received by the Commerce and Companies Agency by the end of the period provided in subsection (2), or if registration is refused. If the other contracting party was unaware that the limited liability company was not registered, the other party may terminate the agreement as long as the company remains unregistered. Section 41(1), second sentence, applies with such changes as are necessary.

(4) Sections 42 to 44 apply, with such changes as are necessary, where a public limited company that is formed as a result of a merger acquires assets from a shareholder known to the company during the 24 months following registration of the company.

Issue of certificate

289 (1) Upon receipt of an application for registration of a cross-border merger, the Commerce and Companies Agency ensures that all actions and formalities that are necessary to implement the merger have been taken or met. The Agency will issue a certificate to this effect to the participating limited liability companies that are subject to Danish law. The certificate will be issued as soon as possible after the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The merger has been adopted by all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the merger that are subject to Danish law.

2. The claims filed by creditors under section 278 have been settled.

3. The shareholders' claims for compensation under section 285 have been settled, or adequate security has been provided for such claims. If valuation experts have drawn up a statement on the plan, including the consideration, and the statement provides that the consideration is fair and reasonable, the valuation experts must also have declared that their statement on the consideration is not disputed to any significant degree. The valuation experts will determine whether the security is adequate.

4. The shareholders’ claims for redemption under section 286 have been settled.

5. The requirements for the election of management and an auditor under section 287(3) have been met.

6. The claims filed by creditors under section 278 have been settled.

6. The requirement in section 316 on employee participation has been met.

(2) If the surviving limited liability company participating in a cross-border merger will be subject to Danish law, the regulatory authorities that govern each of the participating foreign limited liability companies must, for each company, submit a certificate to the Commerce and Companies Agency for the purpose of registering the merger. The certificate serves as conclusive evidence that all actions and formalities that are necessary to implement the merger in the relevant country have been taken or met, and that the foreign regulatory authority will register the merger in respect of the non surviving company after receipt of a notification by the Commerce and Companies Agency. The certificate must be received by the Agency no later than six months after it is issued or it will be deemed invalid. Upon receipt of certificates for all of the companies participating in the merger, the Commerce and Companies Agency will register the implementation of the cross-border merger with respect to the surviving company, and notify all registers in which the other participating companies are registered as soon as possible.

(3) For a cross-border merger where the surviving limited liability company will be subject to Danish law, the merger takes effect from the date that the Commerce and Companies Agency registers the merger.

(4) If the surviving limited liability company participating in a cross-border merger will not be subject to Danish law, the Commerce and Companies Agency will register the implementation of the merger in respect of the non-surviving limited liability companies that are subject to Danish law when the Agency has received notification as provided in subsection (2) from the competent regulatory authority governing the surviving limited liability company. Vertical cross-border mergers between parent companies and wholly-owned subsidiaries

290 If a limited liability company is dissolved without liquidation by transferring its assets and liabilities as a whole to another limited liability company holding all of the shares in the non-surviving limited liability company, a "vertical cross border merger", the merger resolution may be passed by the central governing body in the non-surviving limited liability company. Section 272(1) and (2), paragraphs 1, 2, 4, 6 and 12, sections 273, 274 and 277 to 280, section 281(1), second and third sentences, sections 282 to 284 and sections 287 to 289 also apply to vertical cross-border mergers.

Cross-border divisions

291 (1) Limited liability companies that are subject to this Act may participate in cross-border divisions in which the other participating companies are also limited liability companies governed by the laws of one or more other EU or EEA Member States.

(2) A cross-border division can only be implemented if the laws governing the other participating limited liability companies permit cross-border divisions. It is also a condition that any right of participation enjoyed by the employees of the Danish transferor company will be protected under the laws that will apply to the transferee limited liability company or companies after the division. If these conditions are not satisfied, a Danish limited liability company may not participate in any cross-border division.

(3) If any claim raised by a creditor of a limited liability company participating in the division is not satisfied, each of the other participating limited liability companies are jointly and severally liable for any obligations that existed at the date that the division plan was published, up to the maximum amount of the net value contributed or remaining in the limited liability company at that time.

(4) If one or more of the transferee limited liability companies participating in a division are the result of another division or merger which has not been implemented, this must be specified in the division plan (see section 292). Any division into new transferee limited liability companies resulting from another division or merger must be implemented immediately after the division or merger that results in the new limited liability companies (see section 308).

Division plan

292 (1) The central governing bodies of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division must draw up and sign a joint division plan, which must include information and provisions on 1. the corporate forms, names and registered offices of the participating limited liability companies and of the transferee limited liability companies;

2. an accurate description and distribution of the assets and liabilities that are to be transferred or to remain in each limited liability company participating in the division;

3. the consideration offered to the shareholders in the transferor limited liability company;

4. the distribution of the consideration, including shares in the transferee limited liability companies, to the shareholders in the transferor limited liability company, and the distribution criterion;

5. the likely impact of the cross-border division on the number of employees in the participating limited liability companies;

6. the time from which the shares offered as consideration will confer on the holders a right to receive dividends, and a specification of any special conditions associated with such rights;

7. the time from which the rights and obligations of the transferor limited liability company are considered to have been transferred for accounting purposes;

8. the rights accruing in the transferee limited liability company to any holders of shares carrying special rights and any holders of other securities or shares, or the actions proposed to be taken for the benefit of such persons;

9. any special benefits accruing to the valuation experts that make a statement on the division plan (see section 296) and to the members of the companies' management;

10. the articles of association of the surviving limited liability company;

11. information about the procedures under section 318 for involving employees in the determination of their rights to representation in the surviving limited liability company, if appropriate;

12. valuation of the assets and liabilities transferred to the transferee limited liability companies; and

13. the dates of the participating companies' financial statements used to establish the conditions of the crossborder division.

(2) For each of the existing limited liability companies, the division plan must be signed by the end of the financial year in which the division takes effect for accounting purposes (see subsection (1), paragraph 7). If this time limit is exceeded, notification that the Commerce and Companies Agency has received the division plan cannot be published and, accordingly, the division cannot be adopted.

(3) If not all of the assets are distributed in the division plan (see subsection (1), paragraph 2), and the distribution cannot be determined by interpreting the plan, such assets or the value they represent will be distributed among the participating limited liability companies in proportion to the net assets contributed or remaining in each limited liability company according to the division plan.

(4) If not all of the liabilities are distributed in the division plan (see subsection (1), paragraph 2), and the distribution cannot be determined by interpreting the plan, each of the participating limited liability companies are jointly and severally liable, subject to the maximum amount of the net value contributed or remaining in the individual limited liability company. Such liabilities are distributed among the participating limited liability companies in proportion to the net assets contributed or remaining in each company according to the division plan.

Division statement

293 The central governing bodies of each of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division must draw up a written statement that provides explanations and reasons for the division plan. The statement must include information about how the consideration offered for the shares in the transferor limited liability company was determined, including any particular difficulties in connection with such determination. The statement must also include a description of the consequences of the cross-border division for the shareholders, creditors and employees.

Interim balance sheet

294 (1) If the division plan is signed more than six months after the end of the financial year to which the limited liability company's most recent annual report relates, an interim balance sheet must be prepared for the relevant limited liability company participating in the division (but see subsection (2)). The date of the interim balance sheet, which must be prepared in accordance with the Danish Financial Statements Act, may not be more than three months before the date that the division plan was signed. The interim balance sheet must be audited if the limited liability company is subject to audit obligations under the Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

(2) The shareholders may agree that no interim balance sheet should be prepared, notwithstanding that the division plan (if any) has been signed more than six months after the end of the financial year to which the limited liability company's most recent annual report relates.

Valuation report on non-cash contributions

295 (1) If a capital increase is implemented in one or more of the transferee public limited companies in connection with the division, or if one or more new public limited companies are formed by the division, a report must be obtained from a valuation expert (but see subsection (2)) to be appointed under section 37(1). Section 37(2) and (3) also applies to the valuation experts' activities in relation to all of the limited liability companies participating in the division.

(2) If a valuation report is to be prepared in connection with a division, it must include

1. a description of each contribution;

2. information on the valuation method applied;

3. a specification of the agreed consideration; and

4. a declaration that the value of the contribution as assessed in the report is not less than the agreed consideration, including any nominal value of the shares to be issued and any premium on them.

(3) The valuation report may not be drawn up more than three months before the date of the division resolution, if any (see section 300). If this time limit is exceeded, the division cannot be validly adopted.

Statement by valuation expert(s) on the division plan, including the consideration

296 (1) For each of the limited liability companies participating in the division, one or more independent valuation experts must make a written statement on the division plan, including the consideration (see subsection (4)). However, the shareholders may decide, by unanimous agreement, not to obtain a statement by a valuation expert on the division plan.

(2) The valuation experts must be appointed as specified in section 37(1). If the limited liability companies participating in the division decide to use one or more joint valuation experts, the valuation experts must, at the companies' re-quest, be appointed by the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where the registered office of the surviving limited liability company is situated.

(3) Section 37(2) and (3) also applies to the valuation experts' activities in relation to all of the limited liability companies participating in the division.

(4) The statement must include a declaration as to whether the consideration offered for the shares in the transferor limited liability company is fair and reasonable. The statement must specify the method(s) used for determining the consideration and assess whether such methods are appropriate. The statement must also specify the values that result from each method and the relative importance that should be attached to each individual method in connection with the valuation. Where the valuation gives rise to particular difficulties, these should be included in the statement.

Declaration by valuation expert(s) on the creditors' position

297 In addition to the statement referred to in section 296, the valuation experts must make a declaration as to whether the creditors of each limited liability company are considered to be sufficiently protected after the division. However, the shareholders may decide, by unanimous agreement, not to obtain a declaration by a valuation expert on the creditors' position.

Opportunity for creditors to file their claims

298 (1) If the valuation experts, with their declaration on the position of the creditors in the limited liability company (see section 297), conclude that the creditors will not be sufficiently protected after the division, or if no declaration has been made by a valuation expert on the creditors' position, creditors whose claims arose prior to the Commerce and Companies Agency’s publication under section 299 may file their claims up to four weeks after the date that all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division passed the resolution on the division. However, no claims for which adequate security has been provided may be filed.

(2) A request may be made for repayment of claims filed if they are due, and adequate security may be requested for claims filed that are not yet due.

(3) Unless otherwise established, security under subsection (2) is not required if repayment of the claims is secured by a statutory arrangement.

(4) If the limited liability company and any creditors who have filed their claims disagree as to whether security should be provided or whether the security offered is adequate, either party may, no later than two weeks after the claim is filed, bring the matter before the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where the limited liability company’s registered office is situated for a ruling on the issue.

(5) In the agreement on which the claim is based, creditors may not, with binding effect, waive their rights to demand security under subsection (3).

(6) If creditors have a right to file their claims, the certificate on the division resolution (see section 309) can only be issued upon expiry of the time allowed in subsection (1) for filing such claims.

Filing of division plan and declaration by valuation expert(s) on the creditors' position

299 (1) A copy of the division plan must be received by the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than four weeks after it is signed. If this time limit is exceeded, notification that the division plan has been received cannot be published and, accordingly, the division cannot be adopted. If valuation experts have made a declaration on the creditors' position (see section 297), this declaration may also be submitted to the Commerce and Companies Agency in connection with filing of the division plan.

(2) The Commerce and Companies Agency must publish notification in its IT system that it has received the documents referred to in subsection (1). If creditors have a right to file their claims, this must be stated in the Agency’s notification.

Resolution to implement a cross-border division

300 (1) The resolution to implement a division may be passed no earlier than four weeks after publication by the Commerce and Companies Agency of a notification that it has received the division plan and any declaration by the valuation experts on the creditors' position.

(2) If the transferor limited liability company is dissolved following the division, and if it has reached the end of its financial year without the general meeting having yet approved the annual report for the accounting period just ended, the general meeting must approve the annual report for this accounting period on or before the date of the resolution to implement the division.

(3) Creditors must, upon request, be informed about the date on which it will be resolved to implement any division.

(4) The division must be implemented in accordance with the division plan. If the division is not adopted in accordance with the division plan, the proposal is considered to have lapsed.

(5) If the following documents have been prepared, they must be made available for inspection by the shareholders no later than four weeks before the date on which the resolution to implement a division is to be passed, unless the shareholders agree that the documents should not be made available to them before the general meeting (but see subsection (7)):

1. The division plan.

2. Annual reports for each existing participating limited liability company, as adopted for the last three financial years or any shorter period in which the company has existed.

3. A division statement.

4. An interim balance sheet.

5. A valuation report on non-cash contributions.

6. The valuation experts' statements on the division plan, including the consideration.

7. The valuation experts' declaration on the creditors' position.

(6) Shareholders must, upon request, be provided with access to the documents specified in subsection (5), free of charge.

(7) In connection with a cross-border division, the division statement (see section 293) must also be made available at the limited liability company's office for inspection by the employee representatives or, in the absence of such employee representatives in the relevant limited liability company, by the employees in general no later than four weeks before the date on which the division resolution is to be passed.

301 In the transferor limited liability company, the division resolution must be passed by the general meeting with the majority required under sections 106 and 107 and in accordance with any additional rules on dissolutions and divisions provided by the articles of association (but see section 310). If the company is in liquidation, a division resolution may only be passed if the shareholders have not yet received any distributions, and if the general meeting resolves at the same time to suspend the liquidation process. Accordingly, section 231 on resumption of business will not apply.

302 (1) In existing transferee limited liability companies, the division resolution must be passed by the central governing body, unless the general meeting is required to amend the articles of association for any purpose other than adopting the transferor limited liability company's name or secondary name as the transferee limited liability company's secondary name (but see subsections (2) to (4)).

(2) Shareholders holding 5% of the share capital, or shareholders with the right to demand a general meeting under the articles of association (see section 89), may also make a written request that the resolution be passed by general meetings of the existing transferee limited liability companies if the request is made no later than two weeks after the Commerce and Companies Agency publishes notification that it has received the division plan.

(3) The central governing body must call a general meeting within two weeks of such request being made.

(4) If the resolution is to be passed by the general meeting of an existing transferee limited liability company, it must be passed by the majority required under section 106.

303 The central governing bodies of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division must inform any general meeting at which a resolution to implement a division is to be passed about any significant events, including any significant changes in assets and liabilities, that have occurred between the date the division plan was signed and the date of the general meeting.

304 If the resolution to implement a cross-border division is to be passed by the general meeting, the general meeting may decide that that resolution is subject to its subsequent approval of the guidelines on employee participation.

Opportunity to claim compensation

305 (1) The shareholders in the transferor limited liability company may claim compensation from the limited liability company if the consideration offered for the shares in the transferor limited liability company is not fair and reasonable, and if they have made a reservation to this effect at the general meeting at which the division resolution was passed.

(2) Proceedings pursuant to subsection (1) must be commenced within two weeks after the division is adopted by all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division.

(3) If a reservation is made under subsection (1), the division resolution may only be registered after expiry of the two-week period prescribed in subsection (2), unless the valuation experts, with their statement on the plan and the consideration (see section 296), conclude that the consideration offered for the shares in the transferor limited liability company is fair and reasonable.

Opportunity to claim redemption

306 (1) In connection with a cross-border division, the shareholders in the transferor limited liability company who opposed the division at the general meeting may also demand redemption of their shares by the company by making a written request to this effect no later than four weeks after the date of the general meeting. Section 110 applies with such changes as are necessary.

(2) The certificate to be issued under section 309 may only be issued when adequate security has been provided for the value of the shares. Experts appointed by the court with jurisdiction over the place where the registered office of the limited liability company is situated determine whether the security is adequate. If the experts' finding is challenged before the court, this will not delay the Commerce and Companies Agency in issuing the certificate, unless otherwise determined by the court.

Formation, capital increases and capital reduction in connection with a cross-border division

307 (1) Consideration cannot be offered for shares in the transferor limited liability company which are owned by the limited liability companies participating in the division.

(2) Part 3 on formation will not apply if the division results in a new limited liability company, unless stipulated in the provisions on cross-border divisions in sections 291 to 310. Part 10 on capital increases will not apply to capital increases in the transferee limited liability companies which are based on the assets and liabilities of the transferor limited liability company. Part 11 on capital disposals and Part 14 on dissolution will not apply if, as a result of the division, a capital reduction is implemented in the transferor limited liability company or the company is dissolved.

(3) If the division results in the formation of a new limited liability company which is subject to Danish law, and if the supreme governing body and an auditor, if applicable, are not elected immediately after the adoption of the division by the general meeting, a general meeting for the election of management and an auditor, if applicable, must be held by the new limited liability company within two weeks. The general meeting must also decide whether the future financial statements of the limited liability company are to be audited if the company is not subject to audit obligations under the Danish Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

Application for registration of a cross-border division

308 (1) For each limited liability company, an application for registration of the division resolution must be received by the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than two weeks after the resolution is passed by all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division. Each of the transferee limited liability companies may apply for registration of the division on behalf of the limited liability companies. The application for registration must be accompanied by the documents specified in section 300(5), paragraphs 3 to 7, if such documents have been prepared.

(2) The application for registration of the division must be received by the Commerce and Companies Agency within the time allowed for filing an annual report for the period in which the division takes effect for accounting purposes (see section 292(1), paragraph 7), but not later than one year after publication by the Agency of notification that it has received the division plan under section 299. If one of these two time limits is exceeded, the resolution implementing the division will be invalid, and the division plan prepared under section 292 will be considered to have lapsed.

(3) If a limited liability company resulting from a division enters into an agreement before it is registered, and if the other party to the agreement is aware that the company is not registered, the other party may, unless otherwise agreed, terminate the agreement if no application for registration has been received by the Commerce and Companies Agency by the end of the period provided in subsection (2), or if registration is refused. If the other contracting party was unaware that the limited liability company was not registered, the other party may terminate the agreement as long as the company remains unregistered. Section 41(1), second sentence, also applies to divisions, with such changes as are necessary.

(4) Sections 42 to 44 apply, with such changes as are necessary, where a limited liability company that is the result of a division acquires assets from a shareholder known to the company during the 24 months following registration of the company.

Issue of certificate

309 (1) Upon receipt of an application for registration of a cross-border division, the Commerce and Companies Agency ensures that all actions and formalities that are necessary to implement the division have been taken or met. The Agency will issue a certificate to this effect to the participating limited liability companies that are subject to Danish law. The certificate will be issued as soon as possible after the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The division has been adopted by all of the existing limited liability companies participating in the division that are subject to Danish law.

2. The claims filed by creditors under section 298 have been settled.

3. The shareholders' claims for compensation under section 305 have been settled, or adequate security has been provided for such claims. If valuation experts have drawn up a statement on the plan, including the consideration, and the statement provides that the consideration is fair and reasonable, the valuation experts must also have declared that their statement on the consideration is not disputed to any significant degree. The valuation experts will determine whether the security is adequate.

4. The shareholders’ claims for redemption under section 306 have been settled.

5. The requirements for the election of management and an auditor in section 307(3) have been met.

6. The requirement in section 316(1) (see section 318) on employee participation has been met.

(2) If one or more of the transferee limited liability companies participating in a cross-border division will be subject to Danish law, the regulatory authorities that govern each of the participating foreign limited liability companies must, for each company, submit a certificate to the Commerce and Companies Agency for the purpose of registering the division. The certificate serves as conclusive evidence that all actions and formalities that are necessary to implement the division in the relevant country have been taken or met, and that the foreign regulatory authority will register the division in respect of the other participating companies after receipt of a notification by the Commerce and Companies Agency. The certificate must be received by the Agency no later than six months after it is issued or it will be deemed invalid. Upon receipt of certificates for all of the other limited liability companies participating in the division, the Commerce and Companies Agency will register the implementation of the cross-border division with respect to the transferee limited liability companies that are to be subject to Danish law, and notify all registers in which the other participating limited liability companies are registered as soon as possible.

(3) For a cross-border division where one or more of the transferee limited liability companies will not be subject to Danish law, the division takes effect for these limited liability companies from the date that the Commerce and Companies Agency registers the division.

(4) If the transferee limited liability companies participating in a cross-border division will not be subject to Danish law, the Commerce and Companies Agency will register the implementation of the cross-border division in respect of the transferor limited liability company if that company is subject to Danish law. The Agency will make the registration when it has received notification as provided in subsection (2) from the competent regulatory authorities governing the transferee limited liability companies.

Vertical cross-border divisions

310 Where all of the shares in the transferor limited liability company are held by the transferee limited liability companies, a "vertical cross-border division", the division resolution can be passed by the central governing body of the transferor limited liability company. Section 292(1), paragraphs 1, 2, 5 and 7 to 13, and (2) to (4), sections 293, 294 and 297 to 300, section 301, second and third sentences, and sections 302 to 304 and 307 to 308 also apply to vertical cross-border divisions, with such changes as are necessary.

Employee participation in cross-border mergers

311 (1) For cross-border mergers (see section 271) in which the surviving limited liability company will be subject to Danish law, section 140 applies, unless

1. it does not result in at least the same level of employee participation as operated in the relevant merging limited liability companies, measured by reference to the proportion of employee representatives among the members of the administrative or supervisory bodies, committees or management groups, including the company’s profit units, which have rules on employee participation;

2. it does not provide employees in establishments of the limited liability company resulting from the cross-border division that are situated in other Member States with the same entitlement to exercise participation rights as is enjoyed by the employees in Denmark; or

3. in the six months before publication of the notification of the cross-border merger plan (see section 137(1)), the average number of employees covered by an employee participation system is more than 500 in at least one of the merging limited liability companies.

(2) If section 140 applies, sections 312 to 316 will not apply.

312 (1) If section 140 does not apply (see section 311), section 2(4) to (6) and (11), section 33, section 15(1), (2), paragraph 1, and (3), section 17, paragraphs 1, 7 and 8, and sections 41 to 43 of the Danish Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs (lov om medarbejderindflydelse i SE-selskaber), and sections 313 to 316 of this Act will apply.

(2) Under section 313(1) of this Act, section 15(4) and (5), section 33(2), section 34 and sections 36 to 40 of the Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs may also apply.

(3) If the provisions in the Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs apply, section 120(1) and sections 140 to 143 in this Act will not apply.

(4) If the surviving limited liability company in any cross-border merger will be subject to the laws of another EU or EEA Member State, and if, for the purpose of the merger, rules are applied that are based on the Council Directive supplementing the Statute for a European company (SE) with regard to the involvement of employees, section 2(4) to (6) and (11) and sections 3, 9, 36 to 39 and 41 to 43 of the Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs and section 368 of this Act apply to the participating limited liability companies and the affected subsidiaries that are subject to Danish law and to establishments of the surviving limited liability company, participating limited liability companies or affected subsidiaries, where these establishments are situated in Denmark.

313 (1) Section 15(4) and (5), section 33(2) and sections 34 and 36 to 40 of the Danish Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs only apply if one or more of the participating limited liability companies had an employee participation system before the merger, and if

1. the participating limited liability companies’ competent bodies and the special negotiating body agree to apply these provisions;

2. no agreement has been made in the period provided for under section 12 of the Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs, and the participating limited liability companies’ competent bodies elect to apply these provisions and thus continue with the registration (but see subsection (2)); or

3. the participating limited liability companies’ competent bodies elect to apply these provisions without prior negotiations with the special negotiating body.

(2) In the situation referred to in subsection (1), paragraph 2, the application of section 15(4) and (5), section 33(2) and sections 34 and 36 to 40 of the Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs is also subject to the special negotiating body passing a resolution to this effect if, before the merger, less than one-third of the total number of employees in all of the participating limited liability companies were subject to one or more employee participation systems.

(3) In the situations referred to in subsection (1), paragraphs 1 and 2, the proportion of employee representatives serving on management bodies may not exceed the number provided for in section 140 of this Act.

314 Where section 15(4) and (5), section 33(2) and sections 34 and 36 to 40 of the Danish Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs (see section 313(1) of this Act) apply, the special negotiating body determines

1. how the seats on the board of directors or supervisory board are to be allocated between the members representing employees in states where the Council Directive supplementing the Statute for a European company with regard to the involvement of employees applies; or

2. how the employees in the surviving limited liability company can recommend or oppose the appointment of members of the board of directors or supervisory board having regard to the number of employees employed in each state.

315 The special negotiating body may, with no less than two-thirds of the votes from members representing no less than two-thirds of the employees employed in at least two countries, decide not to engage in negotiations or to break off negotiations and instead rely on the rules in section 140 on employee participation in management bodies.

316 If section 140 does not apply (see section 311(1)), the cross-border merger may only be registered if an employee participation agreement has been entered into under section 17, paragraphs 1, 7 and 8, of the Danish Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs (see section 312(1) or section 313(1), paragraph 1, of this Act), or if a resolution has been passed under section 313(1), paragraph 3, or section 315 of this Act, or if the period provided for in section 12 of the Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs (see section 313(1), paragraph 2, of this Act) has expired without any agreement having been made.

Subsequent national mergers and divisions

317 Sections 311 to 316 on employee participation in cross-border mergers apply, with such changes as are necessary, if the surviving limited liability company in any cross-border merger participates in a national merger or division during the three years following the merger.

Employee participation in cross-border divisions

318 Sections 311 to 317 on employee participation in cross-border mergers apply, with such changes as are necessary, to cross-border divisions.

Part 17

Conversion

Conversion of a private limited company into a public limited company

319 **(1)*** The shareholders may, with the same majority required to amend the articles of association, resolve to convert a private limited company into a public limited company. Before passing the resolution on conversion, the shareholders must be advised of any valuation report prepared in accordance with sections 36 to 38. Sections 42 to 44 apply, with such changes as are necessary, to acquisitions after the resolution on conversion has been passed. The conversion may be implemented without the consent of creditors.

(2) Notice of the adopted conversion must be sent to all shareholders who did not participate in passing the resolution no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution.

320 Conversion of a private limited company into a public limited company will be deemed implemented when the company’s articles of association have been amended to comply with the requirements for public limited companies and when the conversion has been registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

Conversion of a public limited company into a private limited company

321 (1) The general meeting may, with the same majority required to amend the articles of association, resolve to convert a public limited company into a private limited company. The conversion may be implemented without the consent of creditors.

(2) Notice of the adopted conversion must be sent to all shareholders who did not participate in passing the resolution no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution.

322 Conversion of a public limited company into a private limited company will be deemed implemented when the company’s articles of association have been amended to comply with the requirements for private limited companies and when the conversion has been registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

Conversion of a public limited company into a limited partnership company

323 (1) The general meeting may, with the same majority required to amend the articles of association, resolve to convert a public limited company into a limited partnership company. The conversion may be implemented without the consent of creditors.

(2) Notice of the adopted conversion must be sent to all registered shareholders and to the new fully liable partners no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution.

(3) Conversion of a public limited company into a limited partnership company will be deemed implemented when the company’s articles of association have been amended to comply with the requirements for limited partnership companies and when the conversion has been registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

Conversion of a limited partnership company into a public limited company

324 (1) The general meeting may, with the same majority required to amend the articles of association, and with the consent of the fully liable partners, resolve to convert a limited partnership company into a public limited company. The conversion may be implemented without the consent of creditors. Before passing the resolution on conversion, the general meeting must be advised of any valuation report prepared in accordance with sections 36 to 38. Sections 42 to 44 apply, with such changes as are necessary, to acquisitions after the resolution on conversion has been passed.

(2) Notice of the adopted conversion must be sent to all partners who did not participate in passing the resolution no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution.

(3) Conversion of a limited partnership company into a public limited company will be deemed implemented when the company’s articles of association have been amended to comply with the requirements for public limited companies and when the conversion has been registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

(4) When a limited partnership company has been converted into a public limited company, the fully liable partner remains liable for obligations incurred by the company before the conversion.

Conversion of a co-operative society into a public limited company

325 In a co-operative society with limited liability, the body authorised to amend the articles of association may resolve to convert the society into a public limited company (see sections 326 to 337). The conversion may be implemented without the consent of creditors.

Conversion plan

326 (1) The central governing body of the co-operative society must prepare and sign a conversion plan. The conversion plan must include the following information and provisions:

1. the name and any secondary name of the co-operative society before and after the conversion;

2. the registered office of the co-operative society;

3. the consideration offered to the members;

4. the time from which the shares in the public limited company will confer on the holders a right to receive dividends;

5. the rights accruing in the public limited company to any holders of ownership interests and debt instruments that enjoyed special rights in the co-operative society before the conversion;

6. any other measures taken for the benefit of holders of ownership interests and debt instruments as referred to in paragraph 5;

7. registration of the shares provided as consideration and delivery of share certificates, if any;

8. the time from which the conversion must be deemed effective for accounting purposes (see subsection (2));

9. any special benefits accruing to members of the company’s management in connection with the conversion; and

10. draft articles of association (see sections 28 and 29) for the public limited company after the conversion.

(2) The conversion plan must be signed before the end of the financial year in which the conversion takes effect for accounting purposes (see subsection (1), paragraph 8). If this time limit is exceeded, notification that the conversion plan has been received cannot be published and, accordingly, the conversion cannot be adopted.

Conversion statement

327 (1) The central governing body of the co-operative society must draw up a written statement that provides explanations and reasons for the conversion plan. The statement must include information about how the consideration to members was determined, including any particular difficulties in connection with such determination.

(2) The members may agree that a conversion statement should not be prepared.

Interim balance sheet

328 (1) If the conversion plan is signed more than six months after the end of the financial year to which the cooperative society’s most recent annual report relates, an interim balance sheet must be prepared (but see subsection (2)). The date of the interim balance sheet, which must be prepared in accordance with the Danish Financial Statements Act, may not be more than three months before the date that the conversion plan was signed. The interim balance sheet must be audited if the company is subject to audit obligations under the Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

(2) The members may agree that no interim balance sheet should be prepared, notwithstanding that the conversion plan has been signed more than six months after the end of the financial year to which the most recent annual report of the co-operative society relates.

Valuation report on non-cash contributions

329 (1) In connection with the conversion, a report must be obtained from a valuation expert to be appointed under section 37(1). Section 37(2) and (3) applies, with such changes as are necessary, to the valuation experts' activities in relation to the co-operative society that is to be converted.

(2) The valuation report must include

1. a description of each contribution;

2. information on the valuation method applied;

3. a specification of the agreed consideration; and

4. a declaration that the value of the contribution as assessed in the report is not less than the agreed consideration, including any nominal value of the shares to be issued and any premium on them.

(3) The valuation report may not be drawn up more than three months before the date of the conversion resolution, if any (see section 334). If this time limit is exceeded, the conversion cannot be validly adopted.

Statement by valuation expert(s) on the conversion plan

330 (1) One or more independent valuation experts must make a written statement on the conversion plan, including the consideration (see subsection (4)). The members of the co-operative society may decide, by unanimous agreement, not to obtain a statement by a valuation expert on the conversion plan.

(2) The valuation experts must be appointed as specified in section 37(1).

(3) Section 37(2) and (3) applies, with such changes as are necessary, to the valuation experts' activities in relation to the co-operative society that is to be converted.

(4) The statement must include a declaration as to whether the consideration offered to the members of the cooperative society is fair and reasonable. The statement must specify the method(s) used for determining the consideration and assess whether such methods are appropriate. The statement must also specify the values that result from each method and the relative importance that should be attached to each individual method in connection with the valuation. Where the valuation gives rise to particular difficulties, these must be included in the statement.

Declaration by valuation expert(s) on the creditors' position

331 In addition to the statement referred to in section 330, the valuation experts must make a declaration as to whether the creditors of the co-operative society can be considered to be sufficiently protected after the conversion. However, the members may decide, by unanimous agreement, not to obtain a declaration by a valuation expert on the creditors' position.

Opportunity for creditors to file their claims

332 (1) If the valuation experts, with their declaration on the position of the creditors (see section 331), conclude that the creditors will not be sufficiently protected after the conversion, or if no declaration has been made by a valuation expert on the creditors' position, creditors whose claims arose prior to the Commerce and Companies Agency's publication under section 333 may file their claims up to four weeks after the date that the members passed the resolution on the conversion. However, no claim for which adequate security has been provided may be filed.

(2) A request may be made for repayment of claims filed if they are due, and adequate security may be requested for claims filed that are not yet due.

(3) Unless otherwise established, security under subsection (2) is not required if repayment of the claims is secured by a statutory arrangement.

(4) If the co-operative society and any creditors who have filed their claims disagree as to whether security should be provided or whether the security offered is adequate, either party may, no later than two weeks after the claim is filed, bring the matter before the bankruptcy court that has jurisdiction over the place where co-operative society's registered office is situated for a ruling on the issue.

(5) In the agreement on which the claim is based, creditors may not, with binding effect, waive the right to demand security under subsection (2).

(6) If creditors have a right to file their claims, the implementation of the conversion (see section 337) can only be registered upon expiry of the time allowed in subsection (1) for filing such claims.

Filing of conversion plan and declaration by valuation expert(s) on the creditors' position

333 (1) A copy of the conversion plan must be received by the Commerce and Companies Agency no later than four weeks after it is signed. If this time limit is exceeded, notification that the conversion plan has been received cannot be published and, accordingly, the conversion cannot be adopted. If valuation experts have made a declaration on the creditors' position (see section 332), this declaration may also be submitted to the Commerce and Companies Agency in connection with filing of the conversion plan.

(2) The Commerce and Companies Agency must publish notification in its IT system that it has received the documents referred to in subsection (1). If the creditors have a right to file their claims (see section 319), this must be stated in the Agency’s notification.

Resolution to implement a conversion

334 (1) The resolution to implement a conversion may be passed no earlier than four weeks after publication by the Commerce and Companies Agency of a notification that it has received the conversion plan and a declaration by the valuation experts on the creditors' position. If the valuation experts' declaration on the creditors' position (see section 332) provides that the creditors of the co-operative society will be adequately secured after the conversion, the members of the co-operative society may agree to derogate from the four-week period.

(2) Creditors must, upon request, be informed about the date on which it will be resolved to implement any conversion.

(3) The conversion must be implemented in accordance with the conversion plan. If the conversion is not adopted in accordance with the conversion plan as published, the proposal is considered to have lapsed.

(4) If the following documents have been prepared, they must be made available for inspection by the members of the co-operative society no later than four weeks before the date on which the resolution to implement the conversion is to be passed, unless the members agree that the documents should not be made available to them before the general meeting:

1. The conversion plan.

2. Annual reports for the co-operative society, as adopted for the last three financial years or any shorter period in which the society has existed.

3. A conversion statement.

4. An interim balance sheet.

5. A valuation report on non-cash contributions.

6. The valuation experts' statements on the conversion plan, including the consideration.

7. The valuation experts’ declaration on the creditors' position.

(5) Members of the co-operative society must, upon request, be provided with access to the documents specified in subsection (4), free of charge.

335 (1) The resolution on conversion must be passed by the body authorised to amend the articles of association. The resolution must be passed by the same majority required for resolutions to dissolve the co-operative society and by not less than four-fifths of the members of the co-operative society or their votes where voting is based on shareholdings, revenue or the like. If the co-operative society is in liquidation, a conversion resolution may only be passed if the members have not yet received any distributions, and if the members resolve at the same time to suspend the liquidation process.

(2) The central governing body of the co-operative society must inform the meeting at which the resolution to implement the conversion is to be passed about any significant events, including any significant changes in assets and liabilities, that have occurred after the conversion plan was signed.

(3) Notice of the conversion must be provided to all members of the co-operative society within two weeks after the date of the resolution.

(4) If the supreme management and an auditor, if applicable, are not elected immediately after it has been resolved to implement the conversion, a general meeting to elect the supreme management and an auditor, if applicable, must be held no later than two weeks after the date of the resolution. In connection with the conversion or at the subsequent general meeting, the members of the co-operative society must resolve whether the society’s future financial statements are to be audited if the society is not subject to audit obligations under the Danish Financial Statements Act or any other statute.

Opportunity to claim compensation

336 (1) The members of the co-operative society may claim compensation from the society if the consideration offered to the members is not fair and reasonable, and if they have made a reservation to this effect at the meeting at which the conversion resolution was passed.

(2) Proceedings pursuant to subsection (1) must be commenced within two weeks after the conversion is adopted.

(3) If a reservation is made under subsection (1), the implementation of the conversion may only be registered after expiry of the two-week time limit prescribed in subsection (2), unless the valuation experts, with their statement on the plan and the consideration (see section 330), conclude that the consideration offered to the members of the cooperative society is fair and reasonable.

Registration of implementation of a conversion

337 (1) The implementation of the conversion must be registered or an application for registration must be filed (see section 9) no later than two weeks after the date on which the resolution to implement the conversion is passed by the members of the co-operative society. The registration or application for registration must be accompanied by the documents specified in section 334(4), paragraphs 3 to 7, if such documents have been prepared.

(2) The implementation of the conversion must be registered or an application for registration must be filed (see section 9) on or before expiry of the time limit for filing of the annual report covering the period in which the merger takes legal effect (see section 326(1), paragraph 8), but not later than one year after the Commerce and Companies Agency publishes notification of the conversion plan under section 333. If one of these two time limits is exceeded, the resolution implementing the conversion will be invalid, and the conversion plan prepared under section 326 will be considered to have lapsed.

(3) The conversion of a co-operative society into a public limited company may be registered when:

1. The members of the co-operative society have passed a resolution on the conversion (see section 335(1)).

2. The claims filed by creditors under section 332 have been settled.

3. The requirements for the election of management and an auditor under section 335(4) have been met.

4. The members’ claims for compensation under section 336 have been settled, unless adequate security has been provided for such claims. If valuation experts have drawn up a statement on the plan, including the consideration, and the statement is based on the assumption that the consideration is fair and reasonable, the valuation experts must also have declared that their statement on the consideration is not disputed to any significant degree. The valuation experts determine whether the security is adequate.

(4) Conversion of a co-operative society into a public limited company will be deemed implemented when the society’s articles of association have been amended to comply with the requirements for public limited companies and when the conversion has been registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

(5) No registration may be made in the register of shareholders and no share certificates, if applicable, may be delivered until the conversion has been registered.

(6) If all those entitled to be registered in the company’s register of shareholders have not made a request to such effect three years after the conversion, the central governing body may, by publication of a notification in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system, request the relevant shareholders to contact the company within six months. Where the company has not been contacted by expiry of the time limit, the board of directors may dispose of the shares at the shareholder’s expense. The company may deduct its expenses of publishing the notification and any sale expenses from the sales proceeds. Any sales proceeds not claimed within three years after the sale will accrue to the company.

(7) Sections 42 to 44 apply, with such changes as are necessary, if the converted limited liability company acquires assets from a shareholder who is known to the company during a period of up to 24 months after registration of the conversion.

Part 18

Takeover bids in public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market or an alternative market place

338 The provisions of this Part apply to public limited companies that have one or more share classes with voting rights and are admitted to trading on a regulated market or an alternative market place in an EU or EEA Member State (but see section 340(4)).

Special approval from the general meeting

339 (1) The general meeting may resolve to introduce a procedure whereby the central governing body of a public limited company whose shares are the subject of a takeover bid (see Part 8 of the Danish Securities Trading Act) must obtain the approval of the general meeting before taking any action that may hinder or frustrate a takeover bid, other than resolving to seek alternative bids.

(2) The general meeting must pass the resolution under subsection (1) in accordance with the requirements for a majority in section 106(1). The resolution must also comply with any other rules prescribed by the public limited company’s articles of association under section 106(1). This also applies to any subsequent amendments to the resolution.

(3) The approval of the general meeting prescribed by subsection (1) is required from the time the offeror announces his intention to bid until the result of the bid is available and has been made public under the provisions of Part 8 of the Securities Trading Act, or the bid has lapsed. Accordingly, the approval of the general meeting must be obtained irrespective of whether it was resolved to take the relevant action before the central governing body received notice of the takeover bid.

(4) In order to obtain the general meeting’s approval for any action referred to in subsection (1), the central governing body of the public limited company may convene the general meeting by providing at least two weeks’ notice, notwithstanding section 94(2) and any longer period of notice prescribed by the articles of association.

(5) If the general meeting of a public limited company has introduced a procedure whereby the approval of the general meeting must be obtained as specified in subsection (1), the general meeting may resolve that that procedure only applies if the company’s shares are made the subject of a bid from a company in an EU or EEA Member State that has introduced a similar procedure or is directly or indirectly controlled by a parent company (see sections 6 and 7) that has introduced a similar procedure.

(6) The public limited company must give notice as soon as possible about the resolution made by the general meeting to introduce a procedure as specified in subsection (1). Notice must be provided to the Commerce and Companies Agency and the supervisory authorities in any EU or EEA Member State in which the company’s shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market or an alternative market place, or in which admission to trading has been applied for. Information about the resolution made by the general meeting must be published in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

Suspension of special rights

340 (1) The general meeting may resolve to introduce a procedure whereby special rights or restrictions attaching to shareholdings in the public limited company or attaching to individual shares will be suspended if the company’s shares become the subject of a takeover bid (see Part 8 of the Danish Securities Trading Act).

(2) The general meeting must pass the resolution under subsection (1) in accordance with the requirements for a majority in section 106(1). The resolution must also comply with any other rules prescribed by the public limited company’s articles of association under section 106(1). If the public limited company has more than one share class, the resolution must also satisfy the majority requirements prescribed by section 107(3). These requirements also apply to any subsequent amendments to the resolution.

(3) The public limited company must give notice as soon as possible about the resolution made by the general meeting to introduce such a procedure. Notice must be provided to the Commerce and Companies Agency and the supervisory authorities in any EU or EEA Member State in which the company’s shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market or an alternative market place, or in which admission to trading has been applied for. Information about the resolution of the general meeting must be published in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system.

(4) Subsections (1) to (3) do not apply to public limited companies in which the Danish State holds voting shares that have special rights that are compatible with the EC Treaty.

Legal effects of suspension

341 (1) As a result of the resolution of the general meeting on suspension under section 340(1), any restrictions on the right to transfer or acquire shares prescribed by the public limited company’s articles of association or by agreement cannot be enforced against the offeror during the time allowed for acceptance of the bid (but see section 342(1)). If the offeror has stipulated any special conditions in the offer document, the restrictions are suspended until the offeror has decided, in accordance with the offer document, whether the bid can be completed.

(2) At the general meeting referred to in section 339, a resolution on suspension under section 340(1) has the effect

1. that any restrictions on voting rights prescribed by the public limited company’s articles of association or by agreement cannot be enforced (but see section 342(2)); and

2. that any share that is given greater voting weight by the public limited company’s articles of association (see section 46(1)) or by agreement only carries voting rights in proportion to its share of the aggregate voting share capital (but see section 342(2)).

(3) At the general meeting referred to in section 343, a resolution on suspension under section 340(1) has the effect

1. that any restrictions on voting rights prescribed by the public limited company’s articles of association or by agreement cannot be enforced (but see section 342(2));

2. that any share that is given greater voting weight by the public limited company’s articles of association (see section 46(1)) or by agreement only carries voting rights in proportion to its share of the aggregate voting share capital (but see section 342(2)); and

3. that special rights conferred on certain shareholders to appoint members of management under the public limited company’s articles of association cannot be enforced.

(4) The general meeting may resolve that subsections (1) to (3) only apply if the public limited company’s shares become the subject of a bid from a public limited company in an EU or EEA Member State that has passed a similar resolution on suspension or is directly or indirectly controlled by a parent company that has passed a similar resolution on the suspension of special rights or restrictions attaching to shareholdings or to individual shares.

342 (1) Any agreement restricting the right to transfer or acquire shares that is made before 31 March 2004 may, notwithstanding section 340(1), be enforced against an offeror.

(2) Any agreement on the exercise of voting rights that is made before 31 March 2004 may, notwithstanding section 340(1), be enforced at the general meetings referred to in sections 339 and 343.

Amendments to the articles of association following a successful takeover bid

343 Where an offeror has acquired 75% or more of the voting capital in a public limited company, and that company has passed a resolution on suspension under section 340(1), the offeror may require the central governing body to convene a general meeting after the expiry of the bid for the purpose of amending the articles of association and appointing or replacing management members. This first general meeting may only be convened with at least two weeks’ notice, notwithstanding section 94(2) and any longer notice period prescribed by the articles of association.

Compensation to certain shareholders

344 (1) Where companies have passed a resolution on suspension under section 340(1) and the offeror's bid is successful and effected, the offeror must pay compensation to any shareholders that suffer economic loss because special rights or restrictions attaching to shareholdings or to individual shares under the public limited company’s articles of association cannot be enforced (see section 341, subsections (1) to (3)).

(2) The offeror's bid document must detail the compensation to be provided by the offeror to the shareholders, and the basis for calculating that compensation. The amount of the compensation must be based on the market value of the relevant shares.

(3) If an agreement cannot be reached on the amount of compensation, it must be determined by experts appointed by the court that has jurisdiction over the place where the public limited company's registered office is situated. The decision made by the experts may be brought before the court. Such proceedings must be commenced within three months of receipt of the experts' determination of the compensation amount.

(4) Shareholders are also entitled to compensation under subsections (1) to (3) if, during the period between 31 March 2004 and 26 June 2005, they entered into an agreement for special rights or restrictions, and those rights or restrictions cannot be enforced because of a takeover bid (see section 341(1) to (3)).

Part 19

Branches of foreign limited liability companies

345 (1) Foreign public limited companies, limited partnership companies, private limited companies, and companies with a similar corporate form that are resident in an EU or EEA Member State may operate via a branch in Denmark.

(2) Other foreign public limited companies, limited partnership companies, private limited companies, and companies with a similar corporate form may operate via a branch in Denmark if so authorised by an international agreement, or if the Commerce and Companies Agency considers that Danish limited liability companies are provided with a reciprocal right in the foreign company's home country, or the Agency otherwise grants permission.

346 (1) The branch must be managed by one or more branch managers.

(2) Branch managers must be legally competent and not subject to guardianship under section 5 of the Danish Guardianship Act, and no surrogate decision-maker may have been designated for the manager under section 7 of the Guardianship Act. The provisions of this Act regarding members of management generally apply, with such changes as are necessary, to branch managers.

(3) The branch is bound by the signature or joint signatures of one or more branch managers. Branch managers may grant power of procuration.

347 (1) A branch must have a name and may have secondary names (see section 3). A branch name must include the company’s name with the word "filial" (in English, branch) added to it, and clearly indicate the nationality of the foreign company.

(2) On all letters and other business papers, including electronic messages, and on its website, if any, a branch must state its name, registered office, Central Business Register (CVR) number, and the name of any register and the registration number of the limited liability company in its home country. If the amount of the share capital is stated on these documents, both the subscribed and the paid-up capital must be stated.

348 The limited liability company is subject to Danish law and to the jurisdiction of the Danish courts for all legal matters arising out of its business activities in Denmark.

349 (1) The establishment of a branch must be registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system or an application for registration must be filed with the Agency. Part 2 applies, with such changes as are necessary.

(2) The branch may not commence any activities until registration is complete or an application for registration has been filed. If registration is refused, or an existing branch is deregistered (see section 350), the branch may not continue its business in Denmark.

(3) If bankruptcy, compulsory composition or similar proceedings have been commenced against the foreign company, this must be registered in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system or an application for registration must be filed with the Agency no later than two weeks after the commencement of proceedings. Information about the status of the foreign company must be added to the company’s name (see section 347(1)).

350 (1) A branch must be deleted from the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system if

1. the company deletes the branch or applies to have the branch deleted;

2. the branch has no branch manager and this defect is not remedied before the expiry of a time limit set by the Commerce and Companies Agency;

3. the branch manager has failed to file the foreign company's audited annual report, if applicable, with the Commerce and Companies Agency in accordance with sections 143 and 144 of the Danish Financial Statements Act, and this defect is not remedied by the expiry of a time limit set by the Agency; or

4. where the company is not resident in an EU or EEA Member State, a branch creditor establishes that his claim cannot be satisfied out of the company’s assets in Denmark.

(2) If it appears that the matter that provided the basis for deletion from the IT system no longer exists after deletion, the Commerce and Companies Agency may re-register the branch upon request from the foreign company. The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe rules about the re-registration of branches.

(3) In the circumstances referred to in subsection (1), paragraph 4, the foreign company may not establish a new branch, and the branch may not be re-registered, until the creditor has either been paid in full or has consented to the establishment of a new branch.

Part 20

State-owned public limited companies Definition, etc.

351 The rules governing public limited companies and the special rules governing state-owned public limited companies as provided by this Act (but see sections 352 and 353) apply to state-owned public limited companies.

352 (1) The special rules in this Act governing state-owned public limited companies do not apply to public limited companies that are subsidiaries of state-owned public limited companies.

(2) State-owned public limited companies whose shares are admitted to trading on a regulated market in an EU or EEA Member State are exempted from the special rules in this Act governing state-owned public limited companies.

353 The Commerce and Companies Agency may prescribe rules that exempt state-owned public limited companies from the special rules under this Act where it is necessary to ensure consistency with the corresponding rules applicable to limited liability companies whose securities are admitted to trading on a regulated market in an EU or EEA Member State.

Special disclosure requirements, etc.

354 State-owned public limited companies must notify the Commerce and Companies Agency as soon as possible about any significant matters relating to the company that can be assumed to affect the company’s future, or its employees, shareholders or creditors. Parent companies (see sections 6 and 7) must give notice of significant matters relating to the group that can be assumed to affect the group’s future, or its employees, shareholders or creditors.

355 The Commerce and Companies Agency prescribes rules on the publication of notices under section 354 and other documents, etc. that state-owned public limited companies are required to publish in the Agency's IT system under this Act.

356 A state-owned public limited company must publish its articles of association and annual reports on its website.

357 (1) The board of directors or the supervisory board of a state-owned public limited company must oversee the establishment of guidelines to ensure that the company complies with the special rules governing state-owned public limited companies in this Act and in the Danish Financial Statements Act.

(2) The Commerce and Companies Agency may compel the company to send any guidelines established under subsection (1) to the Agency.

Part 21

Limited partnership companies

358 The rules of this Act governing public limited companies also apply to limited partnership companies, subject to any necessary modifications.

359 Limited partnership companies have an obligation and an exclusive right to include the words "kommanditaktieselskab" or "partnerselskab" (in English, limited partnership company), or the abbreviation "P/S" in their name.

360 (1) In addition to the information required to be included for public limited companies, the memorandum of association of a limited partnership company must include the following information:

1. The full name(s), address(es) and Central Business Register (CVR) number(s), if applicable, of the fully liable partner(s).

2. Whether the fully liable partner(s) is/are liable to make contributions and if so, the amount of each individual contribution. If the contribution has not been paid in full, the rules governing payment must be stated. If non-monetary contributions are made, the basis for the valuation must be detailed.

3. Any provisions contained in the articles of association regarding the level of influence held by the fully liable partner(s) over the company’s affairs, and their share(s) in the profits or losses.

(2) In addition to the information listed in sections 28 and 29, the articles of association of a limited partnership company must prescribe rules governing the legal relationship between the shareholders and the fully liable partners.

Part 22

Damages, forced transfer, etc.

361 (1) Promoters and members of management who, in the performance of their duties, have intentionally or negligently caused damage to the limited liability company are liable to pay damages. The same applies where the damage is caused to shareholders or any third party.

(2) Subsection (1) imposes similar liability for damages upon valuation experts, keepers of the register of shareholders and scrutinisers.

(3) If an auditing firm has been elected auditor, both the auditing firm and the auditor performing the audit are liable in damages.

362 (1) Shareholders must provide compensation for any losses that they cause to the company, other shareholders or third parties through intentional acts or omissions, or gross negligence.

(2) If any shareholder has, intentionally or by gross negligence, caused a loss to the company, other shareholders, the company's creditors or other third parties, and there is a risk of continued abuse, the court may order that shareholder to redeem the shares belonging to the shareholder who suffers a loss at a reasonable price which is to be fixed with regard to the company's financial position and the circumstances of the case.

(3) If any shareholder has, intentionally or by gross negligence, caused a loss to the company, other shareholders or any third party, and there is a risk of continued abuse, the court may order that shareholder to sell his shares to the other shareholders or the company at a reasonable price which is to be fixed with regard to the company's financial position and the circumstances of the case.

363 (1) Damages and compensation under sections 361 and 362 may be reduced if it is considered reasonable having regard to the degree of fault, the amount of the loss and other circumstances of the case.

(2) If multiple persons are liable, they will be jointly and severally liable in damages. However, any person whose liability is reduced under subsection (1) is only liable for the reduced amount. If any of the liable persons have paid the damages amount, they have a right to receive contribution from each of the other liable persons with regard to the degree of fault attributable to each individual and the circumstances of the case.

364 (1) Any resolution that the limited liability company should take legal action against its promoters, members of management, valuation experts, auditors, scrutinisers, keepers of the register of shareholders or shareholders under sections 361 and 362 must be passed by the general meeting.

(2) Proceedings may be commenced notwithstanding any previous resolutions by the general meeting granting exemption from liability or waiving the right to take legal action if the information about the resolution or about the subject-matter of the proceedings which was provided to the general meeting before the resolution was passed was not essentially correct or complete.

(3) If shareholders that represent no less than one-tenth of the share capital oppose any resolution to grant exemption from liability or waive the right to take legal action, any shareholder can commence legal proceedings to recover damages for the limited liability company from the person(s) liable for the loss suffered. Shareholders who commence such proceedings must pay the legal costs involved, but may have such costs reimbursed by the company to the extent that they do not exceed the amount recovered by the company as a result of the proceedings.

(4) If the company is declared bankrupt, and the date of presentation of the bankruptcy petition is no later than 24 months after the date on which the general meeting resolved to grant exemption from liability or waive the right to take legal action, the bankrupt estate may, however, bring an action for damages without regard to the resolution made by the general meeting.

365 (1) Legal action pursuant to section 364(3) must be taken no later than six months after the date of the resolution by the general meeting that granted exemption from liability or waived the right to take legal action. If a scrutiny procedure has been initiated under section 150, action must be brought within six months of completion of the scrutiny.

(2) Legal action pursuant to section 364(4) must be taken no later than three months after the date of the limited liability company being declared bankrupt.

Part 23

Penalty provisions, etc.

366 (1) In the absence of a more severe penalty under any other statute, any contravention of the rules of this Act regarding registrations in the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system or the submission of applications for registration, valuation reports under section 43 or notices to the Agency is punishable by a fine.

(2) Where members of the management of a limited liability company or the liquidator, or the manager of a foreign limited liability company's branch fails to meet, in a timely manner, their obligations to the Commerce and Companies Agency under this Act or in accordance with provisions made under this Act, the Agency may, by way of sanction, impose fines that accrue on a daily or weekly basis.

367 (1) Contraventions of section 2(4), section 10, section 24(2), section 30, section 32(2) and (3), section 33(4), section 38(2), section 42(1), section 44(1), section 50(1), section 51(1), (2) and (6), section 52, section 53(1) and (2), sections 54 to 56, 58 to 61, 89, 98 and 99, section 101(3), (4), (7) and (8), sections 108 and 113 to 119, section 120(3), sections 123, 125, 127 to 134, 138 and 139, section 160, third sentence, section 179(2), section 180, section 181, third sentence, section 182(3), section 190(2), third sentence, section 192(1), section 193(2), sections 196, 198 and 202 to 204, section 205(1), section 206, section 207(3), section 210, section 214(2) and (3), section 215(1), section 218(2), section 227(2), section 228, section 234(1), section 339(6), section 340(3), section 347, section 349(2) and (3), and sections 354, 356, 357 and 359 are punishable by a fine. If a company continues to participate in transactions that contravene section 206 or section 210, it will be subject to punishment by a fine.

(2) In the absence of a more severe penalty under any other statute, any person who wrongfully discloses or uses a password or other means of access to attend or electronically participate in an electronic meeting of the board of directors (see section 125(2)) or an electronic general meeting (see section 77(1) or (2)), including electronic voting, will be punished by a fine.

(3) In the absence of a more severe penalty under any other statute, any person who wrongfully discloses or uses a password or other means of access to read, modify or send electronic messages, etc. falling within the provisions on electronic communication in section 92 will be punished by a fine.

(4) Regulations issued pursuant to section 4(3), section 12(2), section 55(3), section 57, section 71(4), section 143, section 172, and section 372(1) may provide for punishment by a fine for contraventions of those regulations.

368 (1) Any contravention of section 312, section 313 and section 318 (see section 3, section 36(4), section 37, section 38, second sentence, and section 39) of the Danish Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs is punishable by a fine.

(2) In the absence of a more severe penalty under any other statute, any person disclosing information which is confidential within the meaning of section 312 and section 318 (see section 41(1)) of the Act on the Involvement of Employees in SEs will be punished by a fine.

(3) Any person who makes false representations to the employees or their representatives before or after a crossborder merger or division (see Part 16), whether intentionally or because of gross negligence, and those representations are of major importance to the employees' participation in the surviving company, will be subject to punishment by a fine.

369 Companies, etc. (legal persons) may incur criminal liability under the rules in Part 5 of the Danish Penal Code (straffeloven).

Part 24

Right to complain

370 The Danish Minister for Economic and Business Affairs may prescribe rules governing complaints about decisions made pursuant to this Act, including rules stipulating that complaints may not be filed with any other administrative authority.

371 (1) Decisions made by the Commerce and Companies Agency under this Act or regulations issued pursuant to the Act may be brought before the Danish Company Appeals Board (Erhvervsankenævnet) within four weeks after being communicated to the relevant party.

(2) However, decisions of the Commerce and Companies Agency with respect to failure to comply with time limits under section 40(1), section 165(5), section 177(2), section 191, section 225(2) and section 231(2), the setting of deadlines under section 16(1) and section 17(2), and decisions pursuant to section 93(2) to (4), section 225(1), section 226, section 232(2) and section 350(1), paragraphs 2 to 4, cannot be brought before any higher administrative authority.

Part 25

Commencement

372 (1) The Danish Minister for Economic and Business Affairs fixes the date of commencement of this Act. The Minister may also determine that different parts of the Act will enter into force at different times, and prescribe rules that derogate from the provisions in this Act that require adjustments to the Commerce and Companies Agency's IT system in respect of registration and publication, until all necessary adjustments to the IT system have been completed. The Minister is authorised to repeal the Danish Public Companies Act (lov om aktieselskaber), see Consolidated Act no. 649 of 15 June 2006, as amended, and the Danish Private Companies Act (lov om anpartsselskaber), see Consolidated Act no. 650 of 15 June 2006, as amended.

(2) The Minister for Economic and Business Affairs may prescribe rules providing for special transitional arrangements for companies, including affected employees, falling within the Act and for governing bodies, including their duties.

373 (1) All applications for registration made under the Danish Public Companies Act or the Danish Private Companies Act which reach the Commerce and Companies Agency before the date of commencement of this Act will be considered according to the rules applicable until the date of commencement.

(2) All executive orders, rules and regulations issued pursuant to this Act and all information registered, including articles of association and authorisations of the company's management, permissions given, approvals, etc. will remain in force until changed, withdrawn, expired or terminated under the provisions of this Act.

374 The Minister for Economic and Business Affairs will review this Companies Act or parts of it two years after the date of commencement of the provisions in section 4.

375 This Act does not apply in Greenland and the Faroe Islands, but may by Royal Decree be extended to Greenland subject to such modifications as may be required by special local conditions.